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Full text of "Spalding's official bicycle guide .."

Vol. VII., N0.76A, 
Issued Monthlv. 

|gV 1053 
^ S73 



JANUARY, 1898. 



Price, 10 Cents. 
$1.20 Per Year. 





ytTHLETlC 

Spalding's 

Official 

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Tor m% 



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Hints on Training;^ Portraits of the Leading; Riders, Information 
for Cyclists, Complete Records, Etc. 



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NEW YORK CHICAGO 
PHILADELPHIA WASHINGTON 




A. G. SPALDING. 



7 



SPALDING'S 



OFFICIAL 



BICYCLE GUIDE 



FOR 1898 

CONTAINING PORTRAITS OF ALL THE LEADING 

AMERICAN RIDERS AND VALUABLE 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CYCLISTS 

^(^■'' HINTS ON TRAINING 

COMPLETE LIST OF "BEST ON RECORD" 
Edited by S. A. NELSON 



FL'BLrSHED BV THE 

AMERICAN SPORTS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

241 BROADWAY, NEW YOKK 

f-ooyright, 1898, by the American Sports Publishing Company. 

u 




7- ■ 



/ • 



2593 

CONTENTS 



The Year 1S97 in Cyclinc;, 

Long Distance Riding and Methods, 

Training, 

The Chainless Wheel, 

Enameling, 

Learning to Ride, 

Pedaling, 

Distance, 

Hills, 

Stiffness of the Limbs, 

Food 

What to Drink, 
Hard and Soft Tires, 
Cycling and Walking, 
Lending to Friends, 
Advice to Lady Bicyclists, 
Bicycling Hygienically Considered 
The Form of Bicycle Saddles, 
Bicycle Records, 



PAGE 

5 
15 
27 

31 
37 
39 
41 
45 
47 
49 
51 
51 
55 
57 
62 

63 
64 

72 

85 



<i THE YEAR 1897 IN CYCLING, 

a.' 

-4 ^ 

s 

A careful review of American cycle racing for the past season 
warrants the statement that it occupies as prominent a place in 
the estimation of an ever-vacillating public as any sport re- 
corded on the calendar. This is doubtless due to the fact that 
in no other sport is the spectator a practitioner of that which 
he views. 

It would be a base libel to say that cycle racing is a " fad," 
when the amount of money invested in it by practical men is 
considered and note taken of the number of professional and 
amateur racing men who are making a living out of the sport; 
for peculiar as it seems, it is hard to distinguish the amateur 
from the professional either by his work on the track, the 
peculiar construction of his anatomy, or even his relations with 
the festive "maker," made to suffer so often through his ambi- 
tion to help along some poor, struggling amateur to fame via 
the " coin of the realm" route. 

It is estimated that there are in the United States i,ooo pro- 
fessional racers and ten professional winners. In the amateur 
class lliey are so numerous that if an attempt were made to 
count them the numerals would give out. They all manage to 
exist in some mysterious manner, however, and so long as they 
keep alive they will remain in the class of racing. 

These men, together with the improved condition of tracks, 
and the additional fact that racing as an art has been practiced 
more regularly this year than ever before, have combined to 
make the season just closed the most successful that has ever 
been known. The season of 1897 will be long remembered as 
the greatest racing season ever known in the memory of the 
"oldest critic." The star feature M'as the middle-distance 
match racing made popular in this country by the arrival of 
Jimmy Michael, a diminutive midget, who has revolutionized 
our races and set the racing and scientific world a-guessing. 
He is the most marvelous athlete the world has ever seen, for 
with his diminutive size he combines a power and an ability 
that is gigantic, and during the last season has duplicated in 
tins country his reccrd in England, France and Germany. He 
has been the liright particular star of the match racing season. 




A1>BERT MOTT, 
Chairman L. A. W. Racing Board. 



SPALDING'S OKKICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. ^ 

He has met defeat only once during the entire season, and he 
met all who were hrave enough to face him in a race. 

Nothing of a sporting nature can begin to compare with a 
middle distance paced bicycle race for excitement and interest. 
During the season just closed such races have been run with 
yinimy Michael, who is the star of the season; Frank Starbuck, 
a doughty Quaker rider of exceptional prominence; Eddie 
McDuffee, a record breaker and match rider of considerable 
fame; Lucien Lesna, a French middle-distance champion; 
Fred Titus, Floyd McFarland and several other less important 
personages as chief competitors. Michael has won every race 
in which he entered save one, the record for the season stand- 
ing as follows: 



Michael — 1 3 3 1 119 .900 

Starbuck 1—000 012 .500 

Lesna; 1—10 2 .400 

McDuffee — .000 

McCarthy — .000 

McFarland — 00 .000 

Titus 00000 0—0 .000 

Lost 12 3 3 1 12 

It must not be thought for a moment that all the interest 
centred in these match races, however, as there were hosts of 
short distance riders who, becoming inoculated with the germ 
of match racing, met many times during the past season. As 
in the competitive races, Eddie Bald, the Buffalo wonder, was 
the star. Earl Kiser, Fred Loughead, Tom Cooper, Arthur 
Gardiner and other less famous riders comprised the lot of 
match riders in this line. They, too, have a record table, and 
at the close of the season the men were rated as follows: 



Bald 

Kiser 

Eaton 

Cooper 

Loughead 

Gardiner 

Walthour 

Lost r 6 1 10 






3 


1 


(i 


3 


2 


1 


16 


.696 


4 







3 


1 








8 


..571 


1 








1) 











1 


.500 


^ 


3 





— 


1 











.375 





1) 





1 











1 


.107 




















{) 





.000 




















— 





.000 




THE SPALDING TEAM. 

Earl Kiser, A. C. Mertens, 

Half Mile T,. A. W. Champion. Five Mile L. A. W. Champion. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 9 

Tlic national chanipinnship races tliis j-ear were lield in Pliila- 
(lelpliia, although several of tliem were postponed to other 
cities. The woncler of the professional class was Fred Longhead, 
a Canadian by birth, \\ho has been riding in this country for 
the past three years. The first day at Philadelphia he surprised 
the entire cycling world by winning two championships, a feat 
that was not duplicated during the meeting. Among the other 
championship winners in this class were Kiser, Bald, Mertens 
and Hoyt. The League of American Wheelmen, the governing 
body of racing in this country, has heretofore permitted the 
amateurs and the professionals to compete together in the cham- 
pionship events, but this year this was changed and an entirely 
separate class of champions was made. They were called 
"amateur champions," and in the exclusiveness of their own 
class they ran and romped to their hearts' content. The 1807 
national champions are as follows : 

QUARTER MILE. Time. 

(a) E. C. Hauseman, New Haven .34 2-5 

(p) F. J. Loughead, New York .32 

THIRD MILE. 

(a) E. W. Pea])ody, Chicago .42 1-5 

(p) E. C. Bald. Buffalo .45 

ONE-HALF MILE. 

(a) E. M. Blake, Keene, N. H 1.03 4-5 

(p) Earl Kiser, Dayton 1.03 

ONE MILE. 

(a) C. M. Ertz, New York 2.16 2-5 

(p) F. J. Loughead, New York 2.03 3-5 

TWO MILES. 

(a) L A. Powell, New York /I.29 1-5 

(p) F. C. Hoyt, Bridgeport 4.15 

(t) Baid-Church 4.46 

FIVE MILES. 

(a) E. C. Hauseman, New Haven 10.33 3-5 

(p) A. C. Mertens, Minneapolis 10.54 

(a) Amateur, 
(p) Professional. 
America, unfortunately, had no representative at the world's 
championships, which were held at Glasgow, Scotland, That 
is the only excuse offered for not having the world's champion- 
ship iriedals in this country at the present time. The amateur 
events were won as follows : One mile, by Schroeder, of Den- 
mark ; 100 kilometres, J. Gould, of England. 




JIMMY MIOIAEL, 

The Sensation of the Year. 



STAI-DING S OFFICIAL PICYCLE GUIDE. 11 

Tlie professional class was separate and distinct, and was 
composed of a similar programme, the professional mile being 
won by a youngster from Germany, Willi Arend, and the loo 
kilometre event by J. W. Stocks, the famous world's record 
holder of England, who at present holds the world's record for 
one mile at 1.35 2-5, beating the best running horse record and 
the hour record at 32 miles 1,065 yards. The special match 
between the amateur and professional mile champions was 
naturally won by the professional. Next year this meeting will 
beheld at Vienna, and already preparations are being made to 
send a large and representative American team abroad to battle 
for the world's championship honors. 

One of the most interesting details of the American racing 
season is the "National Circuit," which is a product of this 
country only. This circuit generally forms in the spring and 
continues until late in the fall, traversing the most populous 
jiortion of the United States, on which tracks the acknowledged 
short distance champions of the world struggle for victory and 
what it represents. This year the circuit has suffered consider- 
ably by the thousand and one meetings, given independently of 
the circuit, with prizes of such intrinsic value as to tempt the fast 
rider from the beaten paths of the circuit. However, even with 
these disadvantages, the racing men who followed the circuit 
visited over thirty cities, racing more than fifty days in over 200 
races which had been prepared. In all of these races, as an 
example of the speed shown by the American riders, the aver- 
age time made in quarter-mile races was 32 seconds, in the 
third mile 44 seconds, in the half mile 1.03, in the mile 2.12, 
etc. The first ten men to finish at the top at the close of the 
national circuit is reckoned as follows : 

Name. Firsts. Seconds Thirds. Points. 

E. C. Bald M U 1 IDi; 

Arthur Gardiner 8 10 7 .50 

Tom Cooper 8 3 fi 44 

Nat Butler 7 6 1 41 

A.C. Mertens o .5 7 37 

O.L.Stevens 6 4 3 3.i 

Earl Riser 3 .5 6 :J8 

C.R.Newton 443 27 

F. C. Hoyt 4 1 .5 :23 ) 

O.S.Kimble 4 :2 3 38'- 

F. A. McFarland 3 4 3 23 \ 

It would be hard indeed to estimate the amount of money 
won in prizes and salary by the average racing man, but among 
those whose names are given above it is fair to estimate that 
their winnings averaged $ioo for each first, $75 for each 
second and $50 for each third, to which must be added their 




EDDIE CANNON BALD. 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL KICYCLE GUIDE. I3 

salary, as nearly all of the professional riders are employed by 
makers of bicycles and accessories. 

There have been many new tracks built the last year, which 
is a good omen for future racing. 

Racing is now divided into sections — there are the competi- 
tion riders, who ride in the open, scratch and handicap events; 
the short distance match-race riders, who ride match races for 
ten miles and under; and the middle distance riders, such as 
Michael and Starbuck, who through the assistance of a small 
army of pacemakers ride twenty-five to thirty-five miles, and it 
has l)een the case during the past season that in nearly every 
race over this distance the records have fallen. While the 
world's record for the mile and the hour, two of the most 
coveted records on the slates, are not held in this country, 
there is a satisfaction in knowing that the mile record has been 
c([ualled by an American rider and that the hour record has 
been dangerously approached. 

The men of the year, therefore, are |immy Michael in middle 
distance match racing, Eddie Bald for the shorter distances 
and Earl Peabody, a Chicago amateur, in his particular class. 
This youngster has closed the season with no first prizes to 
his credit, a greater number than has ever been known for one 
man since the days of the peerless Zimmerman, who tied the 
record with a credit of 103 firsts. In record breaking Eddie 
McDuffee fairly shares the honors with Jimmy Michael, as 
both have done most excellent work. — Tozcn Topics. 




IRWIN A. POWELL, 

Two Mile Amateur Champion. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL RICYCLE CUinF. 1 5 

LONG DISTANCE RIDING AND METHODS 
By F. J. TITUS. 

Among the twelve foremost riders in America there are but 
two capable of taking ]3art in sprint and distance racing at the 
same race meet and they are liable to obtain first, second or 
third honors. These men are Harry Maddox, of Asbury Park, 
and Nat Butler, of Boston. In order to be capable of equal- 
ing the present records for long distance work it is absolutely 
necessary to train for such work conscientiously under the 
supervision of a competent trainer, one who has common sense 
and is careful not to permit his charge to overwork while in 
training and one who, when the time comes for the trial, is 
directive and has under his thumb a manageable set of pace- 
makers capable of going at any pace required steadily and 
with judgment, men who have trained just as well in their pace 
and pick-ups as the aspiring record-breaker. In France and 
England, where the long-distance race is the proper thing, the 
men confine themselves to this style of racing — that is, they do 
not take part in the short-distance racing, but only ride at 
their favorite distances, which may be five, ten, twenty- five or 
one hundred miles. 

The success of the " L,ittle Wonder," Michael, in France is 
due to the fact that he made a specialty of distance work, 
while his competitors kept changing from sprint racing to trials 
of endurance. He was trained to stand the punishment and 
knew when to rest and when to go. A man may be ever so 
good, well trained, etc., but he can never equal or come near 
the record if the pace is not the best. One may ask what I 
mean by the best. 

At the present day machines with two men up (tandems) are 
not capable of equaling the one-hour professional world's 
record of a little over twenty-nine miles, not even if you have 
all the tandems in the country. What is needed in the way of 
machines for pacing are triplets, "quads," quintettes, sextettes 
— say one sextette, three " quads," three triplets are about right 
to give a rider the world's one-hour record and capable of doing 
over thirty miles an hour. 

To those who do not know the meaning of the abore terms, 
I will tell them. The tandem, as we all know, is a wheel for 



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H. K. BIRD, 

One Mile Metropolitan A. A. U. Champion. 



SPAT. ding's OFFiriAI. RICYCLE GUIDE, I 7 

two; the triplet, for three men; the quadruplet, a bicycle for 
four men; the quintette, a bicycle for five men, and a sextette 
and a multi-cycle for six men. You may have heard of the 
Californian nonpulet, a cut of which appeared in a daily paper 
on November 3, 1895. This was only a myth, not a reality, a 
vision of some imaginative Californian, and was supposed to 
carry nine men at the rate of a mile in twenty-two seconds, 
which, as is shown by the following figures, to be impossible, 
by applying the natural laws of air resistance and the power 
of man. 

The fastest time ever made by a quadruplet is 1:35; the 
best possible unpaced mile by a nonpulet would be 1:22, ac- 
cording to actual progression and percentage gained by each 
man. The laws of air resistance are well known. Take two 
riders moving along, say twelve feet apart, the second man re- 
ceives twenty-five per cent, less air resistance than the first 
man, hence the benefit of pace. At a mile in 1:35 more than 
sixty-five per cent, of his weight goes for air resistance. The 
resistance of the wheel on the road is plainly proportional to 
the speed and a small factor. The chain resistance is a great 
factor. The average work of a healthy man is fifty-five foot- 
pounds a second, that is, to raise one pound one foot in one 
second. For a short time the same man can do 100 foot-pounds 
and under excitement 140. When W. C. Sanger rides a mile 
in two minutes the air resistance is 80 foot-pounds. His chain 
resistance 40 pounds, machine resistance 10 foot-pounds; total, 
130. At a 1:35 gait his resistance to the ai'- increases to 135 
foot-pounds; chain, 50 foot-pounds; ma_!-.ne, 15 pounds; 
total, 200 pounds. Thus, one can see that . : is impossible for 
an ordinary athlete to ride an unpaced mile in 1:35. The air 
resistance alone is more than the average athlete can perform 
for 95 seconds, but let him be paced, his air resistance is re- 
duced from eight per cent, to fifteen per cent., according to the 
closeness with which he follows the pacemaker and we only 
have no foot-pounds air resistance, which gives a total of 175 
foot-pounds nearer the possible performance of an athlete. 

To go a mile in 22 seconds on the nonpulet would require 
each rider to exert nine horse power, of which eight horse 
power would be air resistance. The Empire State Express, going 
a mile in 33 seconds, exerting 200 horse power, had to spend 
60 horse power for the air resistance; at a mile in 20 seconds 
the engine could not develop steam enough for the train to 
overcome the resistance of the air, without any other resistance 
being accrued. 

It is no small thing for an athlete ordinarily capable under 




W. H. FEARING, 

Quarter Mile Intercollegiate Champion. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. Ip 

exertion to perform one-fourth horse power, to perform nine 
horse power for 22 seconds, as is asked of him on the nonpulet, 
is tlie wildest kind of an absurdity. The strongest athlete can 
perform but one-half horse power for 10 seconds at the 
maximum." 

From above we can understand why it is necessary to have 
good pacing by large and fast machines. This is known and 
applied by our European cousins, as is shown by their record 
table, which in trials of endurance surpasses the figures on the 
slate of all others. It cannot be that their men can surpass the 
ability of all others if they did not have the benefit of almost 
perfect pacing. In order to prepare for and overcome the 
severe punishment attached to a ride lasting one hour, at an 
average pace per mile of 2:05, it is best to ride two months in 
all kinds of races and on all kinds of tracks, gradually increas- 
ing the distance of the races. Set much of your own pace. 
This gives endurance. Try an unpaced mile once a week, 
doing your best at each trial. This will enable you to observe 
your improvement. Finally, about two weeks before your 
trial, have pacemakers at the track you are training on begin 
training in conjunction with your own. Stop taking part in all 
races at any distance and confine yourself to the ride in view. 
Ride ten miles in the morning, first two or three unpaced, then 
have the pacing machines drop in and pick you up. Cover the 
seven or eight remaining miles at a 2:08 or 2:09 pace. Have 
the pacemakers practice making the pick-ups. In the after- 
noon cover some twenty miles at a time, paced most of the way 
at the rate of 2:07-2:15, finishing with a quarter mile sprint, 
endeavoring at the time to best the pacing machine at the tape. 
Always have a thorough rub after each ride, use cold water 
sponge occasionally above waist to harden the muscles. The 
legs must be soft and pliable. See that the legs do not cramp, 
and if they do tell the trainer where and let him rub plenty of 
goose-grease on that part at night after taking a hot bath, rub- 
bing plenty of liniment on in the morning, wiping clean with 
a rough towel. Have him pay special attention to the parts 
that are cramped. 

No one knows what a severe test it is to body and mind to 
ride for one hour without having first tried it. When I say 
ride for one hour I mean at record speed. If one feels a little 
nervous before the trial it will aid him to endure much, as he 
will ride on his nerve and probal^ly succeed in his attempt, with 
good pacing. The one great difficulty in this country and the 
only reason we cannot equal the foreign long distance records, 
is because we have not paid enough attention to pacing facili- 




J. T. WILLIAMS, Jr., 

Quarter Mile Intercollegiate Record. 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 21 

ties. The success of a trial depends upon the quality of the 
pacemakiug. The pace must be, in order that a man lasts for 
one hour, very steady. I mean by this that if twenty-nine 
miles are to be done in the hour each mile must be at an even 
gait, about 2.05. If a man cannot do twenty-nine miles in the 
hour his schedule must be slower in order that he should finish. 

In my last one hour's record ride, at Springfield, Mass., the 
pacing was very inferior, ranging from 2:01 at the sixth mile 
to 2:22 at the eighth mile. Such a jerky pace is sure to weaken 
the rider and may prevent him from accomplishing his object. 

No stimulants are needed while riding. The excitement 
acts as a strong stimulant. All the attention of the trainer 
should be given to the making of good connections by the 
pacemakers. He should have signals known by the pace- 
makers that they may be slowed up when the pace is getting 
too fast, or more faster when too slow — in other words he mus. 
see to it that the pace is absolutely even and that the man has 
nothing to worry about. 

After the ride is over a little stimulant can then be taken if 
needed. The man should be immediately covered by blankets, 
each part dried perfectly, keeping the cold air well away from 
the chest and other parts. Get the man dressed as quickly 
as possible, away from the track and curious eyes, to 
quiet, and thus give his nerves a chance to settle, not permit- 
ting him to eat his dinner for at least an hour and a half, get- 
ting him to bed earlier than usual. 

I trust that the few suggestions above mentioned may be of 
some service to young riders of ability, as coming from one 
who has had actual experience in cycle racing at long distances 
for the last two years. 

It is an established fact that there is no particular rule 01 
stipulated routine that could be universally recommended for 
tlie guidance of a cyclist in training. The prime reason of this 
is that no two men are built exactly on the same lines, and the 
treatment suitable to one may entirely upset the constitution of 
another, so it is a case of suiting the physic to the patient's 
taste. However, there are a number of facts known to modern 
trainers \\ hich every man must stick to in order to be success- 
ful on tlie track. 

In the spring — -the period a cyclist starts to train — it is abso- 
lutely necessary to take a good physic. By this we mean six 
or seven prescriptions of any reliable purgative recommended 
by a doctor. This process will rid the stomach of any super- 
fluous bile and consequently the blood will be cleansed and 
purified. Good blood makes good muscle and strong bone. 




MILTON BROWN, 

Of Passaic, N. J. A Crack Amateur Rider. 



spai.ding's official bicyclk ciuiDE. 23 

The cyclist should be especially careful not to overwork 
himself when beginning the season. It is this overworking 
that ruins so many ambitious young riders. They are stale and 
weakened l)efore they know what is the cause and it takes 
months to undo what could be easily bridged over by a little 
caution or judicious management. 

The tyro should commence with easy, light exercise and keep 
gradually increasing the length of the daily ride. The first 
week three or four miles will be sufficient at, say a 3:30 gait, 
morning and afternoon. With the increasing power the pace 
should be quickened until the mile can be covered in 2:50. 
Finally, find your "sprint," "let out" at the end of the jour- 
ney for 100 or 200 yards. Follow this plan foi a couple" of 
weeks, after which the rider will be in a condition to do harder 
work. 

It is a good plan to work two hours after eating. 

It is prudent to work into your sprint slowly, as a rider is 
less liable to strains. 

The great secret, in my mind, to be a good rider, is to have 
plenty of rubbing with liniments, because with a correct mas- 
sage treatment, stiffness and soreness will leave as if by magic. 

I have frequently seen a rider come in after a hard race, his 
energy gone and groaning with cramps. I have seen his trainer 
take hold of him and perhaps in ten minutes trot him out again 
without being half rubbed, with the always repeated injunc- 
tion to win or die. 

The position a rider takes on his machine is another vital 
point. A great many ride too low a reach, or else too long, or 
too far forward or too far backward. Fhere is a happy medium. 
Turn the cranks of the machine so that they are parallel with 
the top of your saddle. Then take a plumb-line and move 
your saddle forward so that the peak is just about 2/4 to 3 
inches forward of the pedal. 

So much has been said and written about the staple articles 
of diet suitable for an athlete or bicyclist in training that any 
advice here would be entirely out of place. 

The human body is such a true machine, that a trainer who 
does not study his subject will eventually, prove a failure. A 
great many of these self-styled oracles who call themselves 
trainers, pay no attention whatever to the upper portion of the 
human frame, and this is a great mistake, for here is centered 
the human machinery. 

W. C. Sanger also gives some valuable information about 
preparing for a season's campaign on the path. 

"Before doing any work at all, the stomach must be got 
into shape by a thorough physicking, which relieves the system 




EARL W. PEABODY, 

Winner of 110 Firsts in 1897. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 25 

of all bilious and troublesome matter. This leaves the body in 
a very weak condition, and it must be strengthened gradually 
by keeping very quiet and eating light food, such as milk toast, 
soft boiled eggs, etc., for a few days, after which time more 
strengthening food may be taken. 

"The first three days very little exercise is sufficient; for 
instance, three to six miles a day. at about a 3:20 to 3:30 gait. 
This is gradually worked down day by day, until at the end of 
a few weeks the pace is brought down to about 2:50. The 
third week will show a more rapid change in the condition of 
the man, the miles will be rolled off at about a 2:30 to 2:35 
clip, and the distance by this time will be lengthened to about 
nine miles each day. A little faster work may now be indulged 
in, and about one-half mile can be reeled off at about a one 
minute clip (paced), to show the condition of the man in regard 
to endurance. If he is found wanting, he must again return to 
plugging, while, on the other hand, if he has the required 
amount of endurance, he may start to sprint a short distance. 

"During all this time great care should be taken not to 
reduce too rapidly, as this will cause the skin to become fever- 
ish, but the superfluous flesh should be turned into solid muscle 
rather than removed altogether. In short, no attempt should 
be made to reduce the man's weight below a medium point, so 
that at the beginning of the racing season he will have a little 
flesh to work on, as he will gradually be worked down during 
the hard season's campaigning. 

"It is at this point that the trainer should get in his fine 
work, turning the superfluous flesh into muscle. After each 
work-out the man should have a thorough drying with coarse 
towels, followed by a most thorough massage, every muscle 
being worked and manipulated. The flesh on the stomach, 
back and loins is rolled in the fingers until the whole body 
seems to be covered with but a slight layer of flesh sheeting 
over the muscles. Care should be taken too keep the muscles 
of the legs soft and pliable, as there is no speed in a muscle 
that becomes hard. 

"After the body and muscles have been put in fine condition, 
the sprints are gradually lengthened, until the rider is able to 
cut a full quarter of a mile at top speed and finish strongly. 
Being able to do this, he is in condition to begin the season's 
campaign, which opens the latter part of May, and lasts until 
the end of October, when the record season begins. 

"A trainer cannot spend too much time with his man, espe- 
cially after races. Every moment in this work will doubly 
repay rider and trainer, as the more the muscles are worked 
the more flexible they become and the less liable to stiffen up 




TOM COOPER,. 



Spalding's officiai, bicycle cuinK. 47 

or bind after a sprint. The racing man cannot give himself 
too fully into the hands of his trainer or rely too much on the 
latter's judgment, provided the trainer is a competent man, as 
the trainer is working for himself as well as the rider, and the 
record of the latter's victories and defeats is the record of the 
trainer's work. The man in training should avoid eating 
pastries and all kinds of rich food. A little fruit eaten in the 
morning does more good than harm, and the less coffee or 
water taken the better. 

"This course of training will not apply to all men, as the 
constitutions of all men are not the same, but this is the course 
which I follow very closely." 

J- 

TRAINING. 

TRAININCi is an exhaustive subject, but the principles of 
training are simple. The object of training is two- 
fold — I. To produce perfect general health ; 2. To 
develop special powers in individual organs. To the 
last named branch belongs the training of the racing man, but 
the first is of interest to all riders. Briefly summarized, the 
rules for a healthy life, as propounded by a distinguished phy- 
sician, are: 

1. The hour of rising should be moderately early — say 7 in 
Summer and a little later in Winter. 

2. A cold bath should be taken (all the year round, unless deli- 
cacy of health prevents it), preceded in Summer and followed 
t)y a quarter of an hour's exercise with dumb bells or Indian 
clubs. After the bath, rub down briskly with a rough towel. 

If a swimming bath is available, a ten or fifteen minutes' 
swim will supply both bath and exercise. If there is a walk to 
tiie bath, a crust of bread and a cup of milk, or a bowl of oat- 
meal porridge should be taken before leaving the house. 

Breakfast about 8 o'clock to consist of a chop or steak, ham 
or bacon, and l^read and butter, thoroughly masticated. A soft 
boiled egg may be taken occasionally. Potted meats and spiced 
dishes should be avoided. Coffee is preferable to tea. 

Walk to business, if possible, and when doing so it is not 
advisable to hurry, for too active exercise immediately after 
eating is injurious. 

Dinner — to be taken about I o'clock — a plain substantial 
meal of fish or meat, with vegetables and a moderate allowance 
of plain pudding or fruit tart. Veal, pork and all shellfish 
(except oysters) are to be avoided as indigestible. Among 




■RAY DAWSON, 

One and Five Mile Intercollegiate Champion and Record Holder. 



SPAI-niNO's OFFICIAL RICYCI.E GUIDE. 2q 

vegetables, potatoes, the flowery part of fresh cut cauliflowers 
and young carrots or asparagus, when in season, are recom- 
mended. Turnips, and also cabbage, unless very young and 
freshly cut, are to be avoided. Water should, for young men, 
be the only beverage. 

Walk home from business when you can. Tea, with bread 
and butter, and fish, if desired, to be taken about six o'clock. 
After tea a couple of hours of active exercise in rowing, run- 
ning, cycling, gymnastics or drilling, according to the taste of 
the individual. Supper of cold meat and bread, and to bed 
soon after lo. On Saturday afternoons and holidays, addi- 
tional active exercise as opportunity may permit. 

The quantities of food recommended for daily consumption 
are as follows : 

Solids: Oz. 

Meat, cooked and free from l.one . . lo to 12 

^13 to 15 oz. of the uncooked joint. 
Bread ........ 16 

Potatoes, 10 oz., or cauliflowers ... 12 

Pudding or pastry ..... 6 

Fluids: 

Coffee and milk at breakfast, about . . 18 

Water (at dinner and supper) ... 22 

Tea ........ 10 

And as little as possible drinking between meals, unless after 
strong exercise. Tobacco and alcohol are tobe strictly avoided, 
both being poisons to young men, especially those in frail 
health. In later life, they may, in strict moderation, be used 
with advantage. 

A young man strictly following the above rules will, after a 
little perseverance, find himself in thorough general health, 
and in a condition to enter upon the severer course of training 
by which alone men can hope to fit themselves to achieve emi- 
nence in any branch of athletics. With this further prepara- 
tion we have nothing to do; neither have we space to quote the 
scientific arguments for the rules above laid down. W^e may, 
however, mention, for the information of non-athletic readers, 
that the formulator of the above rules was not a mere medico, 
putting forth theories on a matter of which he had no practical 
knowledge, but was also one of the most distinguished English 
bicyclists of his day, having held no less than four champion- 
ships (one, five, twenty-five and fifty miles) in a single year — 
1879 — and three of them in the succeeding year. He speaks, 
therefore, with both scientific and practical authority, and 
every line which he has written on this subject is of vital 
interest to all who value that greatest of blessings — a sound 
mind in a sound body. 



S1'AL1>IN(;'.S OKKICIAI. lilCYCLE GUIDE. 31 



THE CHAINLESS WHEEL. 

In keeping with the development of the wheel and the march 
of improvements, the chainless was more fully exploited in 
1S97 than ever before. The Columbia folks were the first to 
appear on the scene with the public announcement that their 
leading model for 'g8 would be a chainless. In this style of 
wheel the old League chainless was really the pioneer, although 
a year ago the Spaldings exhibited at the cycle show a perfect 
wheel of this type. The chainless has come to stay and a de- 
tailed description of a standard model is as follows : 

In the Spalding chainless the transmission of power from the 
crank shaft to the rear wheel is obtained by bevel gears, instead 
of the usual form of sprockets and chain now in generally ac- 
cepted use. The mechanism consists of a series of four bevel 
gears used in conjunction with a tubular gear shaft, is simple 
in construction and can be readily taken apart and reassembled 
whenever necessity requires. 

The main driving gear, the largest gear of the series, is' fas- 
tened to the centre of the crank axle, the power being trans- 
mitted from this by a smaller intermediate gear to the tubular 
gear shaft running through the lower right rear fork tube, and 
this in turn transmits tiie power to the rear intermediate gear, 
which directly engages the gear secured to the rear wheel in 
place of the usual sprocket. 

The location of the main driving gear in the centre of the 
crank axle brings its position also in the centre of the crank 
hanger barrel, adds greatly to the appearance and symmetry of 
the machine, insures greater strength, and divides the strain 
more equally on the bearings. The intermediate gears are se- 
curely locked to each end of the tubular gear shaft by a simple 
locking device, more particularly descrilied elsewhere, which 
makes it possible to remove and replace the gears conveniently, 
and without the necessity of any special tools and appliances. 
The tubular gear shaft rotates on ball bearings specially con- 
structed and designed to receive the thrust of the driving gear, 
and transmits the power to the rear hub. The lines of the rear 
portion of the frame present the same appearance as in bicycles 




w 

< 

u 

w 

H 
O 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 33 

of tlie ordinary chain type, the only perceptible difference 
being in the small aluminum cases which covers the gears. In 
this particular the Spalding Chainless differs from all others, 
presenting nothing unsightly to detract from the appearance of 
the machine. 

The method of fastening the main driving gear to the crank 
shaft, and the front and rear intermediate gears to the tubular 
driving shaft is original with us. The customary method of 
attaching these gears is to screw them on, but this method we 
have demonstrated from experience is impracticable, for the 
reason that the constant strain on these gears in hill climbing 
or heavy work kept screwing the gears tighter and tighter on 
their shafts ; the result being that after a brief period of riding 
they became so firmly fastened that it was impossible to remove 
them should necessity require, without great difficulty and the use 
of special tools and appliances. In the Spalding Chainless these 
gears are constructed with a tongue projecting from the back 
side of the gear. The gears fit snugly to their respective shafts 
and this tongue is received in a recessed collar which is solid 
with the shaft and prevents any rotation of the gear on its axis. 
The gears are then securely locked in place by an ordinary 
lock nut, which when set up makes a positive fastening which 
cannot work loose under any conditions, and one that can 
always be readily removed and adjusted. 

The gears used on the Spalding Chainless are cut by special 
machinery, and are theoretically correct, and are as absolutely 
perfect as it is possible to make bevel gears. Each gear repre- 
sents the frustum of a cone on the periphery of which the gear 
teeth are cut, and are so shaped that as the tooth of one gear 
approaches the tooth of another gear, the action is that of a fine 
rolling motion throughout the entire angle of contact, operating 
noiselessly, without slipping, grinding or friction. The gears 
after being cut are carefully hardened in such a manner as pre- 
vents their being warped, twisted or thrown out of line in the 
process, as the slightest variation of this nature would render 
them unsatisfactory in operation, if not entirely useless. After 
being hardened they are carefully ground on special machinery 
to insure the contact surfaces being perfectly smooth, and to 
secure aljsolute perfection in the meshing of the teeth. 

That the Chainless Bicycle has come to stay is an assured 
fact to those who have had opportunity to study its mechanism, 
and test its ease of operation. Its advent represents a revolu- 
tion in mechanics, particularly cycle mechanics ; the results ob- 
tained with it from practical experience completely upsetting 
the theoretical calculations of those who so readily criticise or 
condemn any new idea or device on general principles, and 




A TEAM OF WELL-KNOWN CYCLISTS. 

Fred Titu§. Walter Sanger. L. D. Cabanne, 

Dave Shafer, I'rainer. 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 35 

often without resource to that practical knowledge and ex- 
perience which is so important in every mechanical enterprise, 
particularly in bicycle construction : but, practical, common 
sense bicycle construction has upset many theories before the 
advent of this new application of an old principle, and as prac- 
tice demonstrates more thoroughly than theory what is good 
and what is bad in cycle construction, we would forcibly remind 
you that the Spalding Chainless Bicycle is no experiment, but 
is the perfected result of mechanical skill coupled with exper- 
ience, which experience has demonstrated the fact that under 
all conditions of weather and roads, the chainless bicycle, with 
the power transmitted by beveled gears, is more satisfactory 
and practical tlian any other accepted type of driving mechanism. 
In its construction the very best thought, the very best work, 
and every resource of the very best establishments of this coun- 
try, have been centered, and the present perfected machine has 
more than realized the expectations of those interested in its 
development. 

It is now nearly two years since this establishment first 
undertook the matter of building chainless bicycles, and over a 
year since our first complete machine \\as put into actual use 
on the road. This same machine is in use to-day, and if any- 
thing is better, after having been ridden over 25,000 miles, than 
it was originally. Its working parts show no perceptible wear, 
the frictional parts in the gears being polished more smoothly 
through use, and running better to-day than when the machine 
was first put on the road. 

In the chain driven bicycle, it is an accepted fact that the 
chain is directly responsible for much of the grief with which 
the rider comes in contact. It must be kept thoroughly lubri- 
cated, free from dirt, sand and water, and requires constant 
care, no matter how accurately or carefully constructed. In 
the Chainless Bicycle all these obstacles are removed, the gears 
and driving mechanism being enclosed in dust-proof cases re- 
quiring practically no attention. The wear on the gears is im- 
perceptible, and in ordinary use it will not be necessary to ad- 
just or luliricate this jiortion of its mechanism during an entire 
season's riding. - 

What will astoni^h the novice is the ease with which the 
machine drives. Lift the wheel clear from the ground, spin 
the wheel, and you will wonder at the ease and smoothness of 
its motion. There is no swaying, no jump, no noise, and the 
wheel runs and runs until you wonder at its persistency. The 
same conditions obtain when the wheel is put into service. On 
the level or in coasting, its superiority is manifestly apparent, 
and the average rider will marvel at the quick response to 




JOHN S. JOHNSON. 



SIAI.DING S OFKICIAI, HICVCLE GUIDE. 37 

power applied to the pedals, and the ease and rapidity with 
whicli the machine gets under way. Tliere is no lost motion, 
no grinding, creaking or jumping, as in the chain wheel, but 
an absolute obedience to the will of the rider, a response to his 
efforts that cannot l)e realized uiUil the machine is ridden. In 
hill climbing the result is the same, the machine responding 
immediately to every ounce of power applied. The gears being 
enclosed and perfectly lubricated, water, mud or dust have no 
■effect upon its tiriving mechanism, and there is no falling off in 
■efficiency, no matter how long may be the run, while in the 
chain wlieel friction steadily increases as the machine is ridden 
further towards its destination. 

A concerted effort is being made, on the part of some manu- 
facturers, to try and belittle and if possible create a prejudice 
against the chainless machine. Elaborate tests and bewilder- 
ing tables and diagrams, based upon so-called theoretical 
grounds, have been, from time to time, presented to demon- 
strate, if possible, to the public mind, the " reason why " the 
chainless should not meet with. pui)lic favor. But facts are 
facts, and we can but reiterate that a year's practical use on the 
road, under any and all the varying conditions incidental to 
summer and winter, snow, ice, rain, mud, dust, heat and cold, 
has only demonstrated more strongly and forcibly that in spite 
of all this so-called scientific criticism, the one bright particular 
fact which remains and which cannot be dissipated and which 
all this outcry but emphasizes more and more, is that the Chain- 
less, driven with beveled gears, when properly built, represents 
the simplest, safest, cleanest, and most durable form of trans- 
mitting power that has yet been applied to any bicycle, and 
that for every-day, come-as-it-may, take-it-as-you-find-it riding, 
the maximum of speed for the minimum of effort will be found 
in the Chainless Bicycle. 



ENAMELING. 

The enamel of a machine frequently gets chipped or worn 
off in places, giving it a shabby look, although it may be gen- 
erally in good condition. The original enameling of a high- 
class machine is a form of japan, and demands heat for its per- 
fect application. There are, however, several preparations 
which answer very well for touching-up purposes, and every 
cyclist should be provided with a bottle. 




J. F. STARBUCK. 



SPALUING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 39 



LEARNING TO RE)E. 

There is an idea prevalent among non-riders that riding a 
bicycle, as some persons believe of driving a gig, comes by 
nature and requires no apprenticeship. Nothing can be a 
greater mistake. It is quite possible for a man to mount a 
bicycle without previous instruction, and (with luck) to muddle 
along somehow until he has taught himself, after a fashion, 
how to manage it, but it is more likely that such an experimen- 
talist will find himself " picking up the pieces" of himself and 
machine at the foot of the first sharp descent he comes to. 

There are three things which demand the rider's attention — 
the pedals, the steering, and the brake-lever; and to attempt 
to learn the management of all three simultaneously not only 
handicaps the novice unreasonably, but is likely seriously to 
retard his progress. 

The first few lessons should be taken on a tandem, under the 
guidance of an experienced friend, who should take sole charge 
of the steering. The novice is thus at liberty to devote his 
whole attention to acquiring the art of pedaling, and till he 
has mastered this to a reasonable extent he should go no 
further. He will find when he makes his first essays, that 
even to keep the foot on the pedal is by no means as easy a 
matter as he imagined. Further, he has not only to keep the 
foot, but the right part of the foot, on the pedal. At his first 
attempts he will find that he is tempted to use the waist of the 
foot, thereby greatly sacrificing power. When he has 
conquered this, he will further have to correct the pro- 
clivity of the natural man for driving the pedal by a succes- 
sion of vertical plunges, in place of the persuasive rotary 
motion. This overcome, he should next give his attention to 
acquiring the proper ankle motion, whereby the power of 
the stroke is sustained practically all round the circle. Natural 
aptitude, of course, differs; but if the novice has acquired in 
half a dozen lessons a fair amount of dexterity in the manage- 
ment of the pedals, he will have made a good progress. When 
(but not until) the pedals give him no further trouble, he may 
change seats with his instructor, and on some good road, not 
too much encumbered with traffic, take his first lesson in steer- 




FRED LOUGHEAD. 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 41 

ing and in the management of tlie brake. After two or three 
lessons, the steering, like the pedaling, should have become 
unconscious, so to speak, and he may then make his first essay, 
still under the guidance of his friend, upon a single machine. 
Meanwhile, his instructor, if he be competent, will have kept 
him from the formation of sundry bad haliits; that is, turning 
his toes out, sitting askew, swaying from side to side, twisting 
the shoulders, making one leg do the lion's share of the work, 
etc.; habits which, if once acquired, take an infinity of trouble 
and pains to eradicate. He will further have instructed him 
in the rule of the road, and in such but important matters as 
looking over the nuts of the machine before starting, oiling-up, 
the management of the lamp, and the hundred-and-one things, 
small in themselves, which go to make a practical rider. 



PEDALING, 

One of the most important differences between a good ana a 
bad rider lies in their res]iective pedaling. The action of a 
novice or a badly taught rider usually consists of a succession 
of downward " plunges," applied to each pedal alternately and 
exerting effective pressure for at most one-third of its total 
revolution. The expert, on the other hand, maintains the 
effective impulse during the whole of each revolution. This is 
partly achieved by mechanical aid, in the shape of a grooved 
shoe-sole and partly by a peculiar movement of the foot and 
ankle, only to be acquired in perfection by long and careful 
practice. A reasonalile amount of proficiency, however, is 
within the reach of every cyclist. It will be remembered that 
we have advised that the first lessons in riding should be taken 
on a tandem, with an experienced friend in the steersman's 
seat, so that the learner shall have absolutely nothing to think 
of save the proper management of his feet. Even in the case 
of a more advanced rider, if he has from any cause failed to 
acquire a good style of pedaling the same plan may be adopted 
with advantage. The first point is to ascertain that the saddle 
is fixed at exactly the right height. If it be either too high or 
too low perfect pedaling is out of the question. When fairly 
seated, with the pedal at its lowest point, the ball of the foot 
resting upon it and the leg fully extended, the heel of the rider 
should be an inch and a half or two inches lower than the toe. 
This is not the position which the foot \\ ill occupy in actual 
work, but if the rider attempts to ride " longer " than this, i. e.. 





U-J 



JAY EATON. 



Sl'ALDING S OFFICIAL RICYCLE GUIDE, 



43 



with the saddle so raised that he cannot depress the heel as 
described, there will be a material loss of power at the lower 
part of the stroke. Being thus duly seated, let the rider begin 
to peddle, to keep up the "push" upon the pedal all way 
around. The annexed diagram represents the circle made by 
the pedal in its revolution. 




When the pedal is at the point A the rider's foot is naturally 
at its highest point, and he will find that its most effective 
position in order to impart the necessary downward and for- 
ward movement will be with the heel considerably depressed. 
From this point to the point D the foot should liecome 
gradually more horizontal, and from U to the toe should droop 
very slightly (the foot, with the aid of tlie groove in the sole, 
pulling the pedal around) until it passes the point F, when it 
should revert to the horizontal position. From this point to H 
the foot should rest as lightly as possible on the pedal, so as 
not to impede its upward movement, the toe meanwhile rising 
and the heel becoming more and more depressed until it 
reaches H, when it will be in the right position to push the 
pedal forward again. It will be seen in pedaling as described, 
the impelling force is fully maintained from li to F and even 
llirough the remainder of the circle the pedal may be consider- 
ably "helped" by the foot, the early commencement of the 
forward stroke beingequivalent to the "catch" of the practiced 
oarsman. The novice does not begin his stroke until the pedal 
has reached or passed the point A, and discontinues it at D or 
thereabouts. The difference of the result produced is therefore 
not to be wondered at. In this brief description and in tread- 
ing fair and square with both feet equally, lie the whole art and 
mystery of scientific pedaling. But it is by no means so easy 




TOM AND NAT BUTLER. 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 45 

as it reads in print. Only a chosen few acquire it in perfection. 
A mucli larger class, wherein the writer may include himself, 
know exactly how it is done and try to do it, but only succeed 
in an imperfect and modest degree. The majority of cyclists, 
it is to be feared, neither know nor care anything about the 
matter, but by sheer strength of muscle somehow or other 
manage to push along their machines at a pretty good pace 
and therewith rest contented. The true wheelman, however, 
should have a higher ambition. " What is worth doing at all 
is worth doing well," and the maxim has a special application 
to cycling. . 

DISTANCE. 

How fast and how far it is wise to travel the experienced 
wheelman will settle for himself. A word of counsel on this 
point may not be out of place. The absolute novice, riding for 
the first time, will be wise to limit to three miles or even less. 
Even in this short distance the exercise of a set of untrained 
muscles and (in a whisper be it said) the friction of an unac- 
customed seat will be quite sufficient to cause considerable 
stiffness and soreness. The novice, in his new-born ardor, may 
be willing enough to ride double the distance named, but if he 
does so he will be decidedly uncomfortable on the morrow. If, 
on the other hand, he limits himself to our modest allowance 
he will be a little stiff perhaps, but fit and ready for a fresh 
attempt, which may extend a mile farther. Continuing after 
the same fashion, under proper guidance, he will find himself 
at the end of a fortnight able to ride twelve or fifteen miles 
without difficulty. From this point to twenty or thirty miles 
a day will be only a matter of practice, but the principle of 
gradual increase, both as a matter of comfort and of health, 
should be steadily adhered to. When the novice has ceased 
to be a novice, and has earned the right to call himself a wheel- 
man, he will be able to undertake still greater distances. A 
ycning and vigorous rider, in proper training and on a good 
machine, thinks nothing of a fifty or sixty mile run, but for 
middle-aged and less muscular riders. Dr. Richardson's rule of 
six miles an hour for six hours a day is a very fair one, though 
recent improvements in construction have made thirty-six miles 
a much lighter day's work than the same distance was at the 
time when his limit was laid down. It is a good thing to be 
able to cover fifty miles at a pinch and we should hardly be 
disposed to consider any j^erson a cyclist who could not do 
so, but if health and comfoit l)e the first consideration, thirty- 
six miles will l)e found an ample day's work for most riders. 
For ladies ten or fifteen miles or less may very well suffice. 




WALTER SANGER. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 4^ 



HILLS. 

One of the first things to strike the novice on first taking to 
cycling is that the world is much more hilly than he has hitherto 
been accustomed to consider it. Roads, which, while he was 
a mere pedestrian, he had been accustomed to regard as level, 
he now finds to possess a very decided slope, and welcomes 
them on the reverse, according to the direction in which he 
liappens to be going, with quite a keen personal interest. Such 
gentle gradients as these will give him little trouble, but when 
he comes in tiie early stages of his career, to a really stiff hill, 
whether up or down, he will not find the matter quite so 
simple, and he may be glad of a word of advice beforehand 
how to deal with it. 

First, as to "up-hill." — If, as often happens, there are two 
hills, with more or less valley between, the descent of the 
last few yards of the one will enable him to get up an 
amount of "steam" which will materially help him in 
ascending the other. If the hill to be climbed be not too long 
or too steep, the best plan is to rush it; that is, to force his 
way to the top by a short but intense effort. If, on the other 
hand, the ascent be of any considerable length, the attempt so 
to deal with it would only exhaust the rider. In such case he 
must husband his strength, pedaling vigorously, but slowly, 
and making sure that every particle of every stroke tells. The 
successes of the best hill climbers are mainly dependent on 
this economy of power. 

No cyclist should shirk a hill fairly within his powers, for it 
is by steady perseverance in the face of difficulties that power- 
ful riders are made; but so soon as the cyclist finds that he 
cannot proceed without actual distress, and in particular, if he 
is conscious of undue strain on the heart and lungs, he should 
at once dismount and walk, pushing his machine before him. 
And in this matter each must be the judge for himself. The 
fact that A is able to mount a certain hill is not the smallest 
reason that B, perhaps two stone heavier, and mounted on an 
inferior machine, should be able to do likewise, and if he per- 
sists in making the attempt, he may have grave reason to 
regret it. " Fair and softly " is the best rule. Hill-climbing, 
like all other branches of cycling, is a matter of practice, and 
every hill the rider mounts, within due limits, will render him 
the better able to attempt another. 

Meanwhile, the best rider must be content to push his 
machine occasionally. The necessity is unpleasant, especially 
with bicycle-steered machines, for the rider has constantly to 




p. T. POWERS, 
Amateur Cycle Racing Association. 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 49 

lean forward in order to reach the handles, and the central 
axle bearings are apt to come in unpleasant contact with his 
knees. 

Next, as to "down-hill" riding. The novice is probably of 
opinion that any body can ride down hill, and so he can; but 
it is desirable to arrive safe and sound at the bottom, which is 
not ([uite such a matter of course. If the aspirant — as some 
aspirants seem to do — regards a hill from a tobogganing point 
of view, as a descent to be "rushed" at the speed of an 
express train, his cycling will soon come to an abrupt con- 
clusion. 

A cautious rider treats hills, particularly unknown hills, with 
all possible respect. He takes care to keep his machine well 
in hand until he can see to the very bottom of the descent, and 
even then, should the hill terminate in a road at right angles 
to his course, he will slacken speed in ample time before he 
reaches the bottom. Further, knowing his machine and the 
extent of his brake power, he will never allow the machine to 
acquire such a momentum as to make him unable to stop it 
within, at most, half a dozen yards. And without full confidence 
in his brake he will be very chary of riding down a hill of 
any consideralile gradient at all. 

Back-pedaling is often a valuable auxiliary to the brake in 
going down a hill; but, in many of the modern machines, 
keeping the feet on the pedals in descending a steep hill, has a 
tendency to throw the rider too far forward, and it becomes 
almost a necessity for the sake of balance, to travel "legs up." 
Hence the imperative need of a brake that shall be thoroughly 
trustworthy, without any extraneous assistance. 

STIFFNESS OF THE LIMBS. 

In the early days of his bicycling experience, it is a common 
thing for a beginner to find himself rather stiff and sore after 
riding; and even after he has passed his novitiate, and may 
fairly call himself a wheelman, the same complaint ■will now 
and then recur at the commencement of the season, or after an 
exceptionally hard day's work. 

The best of remedies for such a state of things is a warm 
bath, and a good rub down afterwards with the following com- 
bination. 

I pint vinegar; Yi gill spirits of turpentine; 4 raw eggs 
(whites only), well beaten up. 



#^. 




FRED TITUS. 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 51 

The above, variously known as "white oils," "nine oils," 
etc., is a favorite veterinary remedy. It is practically identical 
with a celebrated proprietary liniment, and artful old trainers 
now and then sell the recipe as a special "tip," deserv- 
ing of handsome recognition. Some authorities recommend 
the addition of half a gill of oil of thyme. Strains, bruises 
and stiffness disappear as if by magic under an energetic 
application of this remedy, which is, moreover, an excellent 
specific for insect bites, 

FOOD. 

With respect to food, the cyclist (unless in strict training) 
may eat pretty much what he pleases, but on the other hand, 
should not eat too heavily of anything, particularly if he is 
obliged to commence or continue his ride very shortly after- 
wards. Pastry is best avoided, as being indigestible, and. 
tending to shortness of breath. 

WHAT TO DRINK. 

The best work in cycling, ns in most other cases, is unques- 
tionably done on non-alcoholic drinks. The great achieve- 
ments of the record makers, particularly for long distances, 
have almost invariably been performed under total abstinence 
conditions. When the day's work is over, if the cyclist feels 
inclined to take his glass of lager beer, his pint of claret, or 
even his single jorum of wliiskey and Mater, we know of no 
particular reason why he should not do so. But while actually 
riding, the less he drinks of any licniid the better, and espe- 
cially of alcoholic licpiids. Even the most attenuated mixtures, 
the modest shandy-gaff or the seductive beer, are but snares 
and pitfalls to the wheelman. The temporary stimulus passes 
away ere the second milestone is reached, and the rider finds 
himself jaded and feverish, probably for the remainder of the 
day. Alpine climbers have the same experience. The best 
plan is not to drink at all save i\ith meals. The mouth may be 
rinced out when opportunity offers, but actual drinking is best 
avoided. If, however, the cyclist must drink between meals, 
his best plan will be to carry a pocket flask filled with weak 
tea, without milk or sugar, and put his lips to it like Mrs. 
Gamp, " when so disposed." For those who may find plain 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 53 

tea unpalatable, Dr. Ricliardson advocates milk tea; that is, 
tea made with boiling milk and water, instead of plain water. 
This may be sweetened, if preferred, and if made pretty strong, 
will bear dilution with cold water. A raw egg beaten up in 
milk is a capital reviver, when obtainable. The two together 
are said to contain every needful element of food. Where the 
comliination is not to be had, milk alone is by no means to be 
despised. Water or soda water may be added, or not, at pleas- 
ure. Personally, we approve the addition, as making the milk 
both more thirst-tiuenching and more digestible; but this is a 
matter that may be safely left to the taste of the individual 
rider. Whatever the drink, it should be sipped slowly. A 
pinch of oatmeal stirred up in a tumbler of water, is said to be 
an excellent drink, not only thirst-quenching, but sustaining. 




TOM ECK, 

Manager of the Spalding Team. 



SI'AI.DINC.'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 55 

HARD AND SOFT TIRES. 

Tlie relative merit of hard and soft tires is a fruitful theme 
for argument. The common impression is that while hard 
tires may be better for speed, soft tires are more conducive to 
comfort, and consequently many riders deliberately use tires 
tliat are insufficiently inflated. The majority of cyclists, how- 
ever, pay almost no attention to the degree of inflation of their 
tires and only pump them up when they discover in riding that 
tiiey are thoroughly flat. Those who feel of their tires before 
starting on a ride ordinarily test them by pressing down on 
them with their fingers or by grasping the rubber between 
thumb and forefinger, but by neither of these methods can 
there be exerted a pressure that is at all comparable with a 
rider's weight. The only method that will show how the tire 
will compress when ridden is to place two fingers of each hand 
near together beneath the rim and, holding firmly, press as 
hard as possible into the tire with both thumbs. This will give 
some idea of the compression that will take place during riding, 
though it will not efpial it, and will vary according to the 
strength of one's fingers. 

Experiments made with tires inflated to various degrees of 
hardness show that very hard tires have a constant degree of 
elasticity under all degrees of compression. A rider who has 
once become accustomed to them is made uncomfortable by a 
small reduction of inflation and very quickly feels a drag in his 
machine. As tires become less and less inflated they compress 
easily under small pressures but less readily as the pressure 
increases. They are most comfortable when vibrations are 
small, but a compression of three-eighths of an inch is the 
maximum that can be safely allowed. 

As about two-thirds of the weight is usually carried on the 
rear wheel and as that wheel also does the work of driving, the 
rear tire needs to be a good deal harder than the front one. A 
tire correctly inflated should show but little bulging at the sides 
when the rider is on the machine.. But because the front tire 
carries only one-third of the weight it must not be allowed to 
get too soft. The more it compresses the more it affects the 
steering, the tendency of a very flat tire being to resist the free 
movement of the wheel from side to side. Those who have 
ridden with punctured tires know the unpleasantness of the 
sensation. A flat rear tire may be ridden slowly without such 
great discomfort, but a flat front tire resists the action of steer- 
ing to a very disagreeable extent and makes riding almost 
unbearable. 




CHARLES A. CHURCH, 

Philadelphia. 



SrALDINCl'S (IM'ICIAI. lUCYCLE GUIUK. 57 



CYCLING AND WALKING. 

Interesting Scientific Experiments Which Demonstrate That 
Cycling Is the Easier of the Two Exercises. 

This is a question one frequently hears asked, especially by 
tliose who have no practical experience of the cycle. Some do 
not even admit that it is easier. To them it appears paradox- 
ical that to propel one's own body and a bicycle should be 
easier than to propel the body alone. But to practical cyclists 
it is a fact beyond dispute — a matter of everyday experience 
and any person can, after a season's practice, ride fifty miles as 
easily as he could walk fifteen. 

Divers reasons are put forward in explanation of this; such as 
the smooth and equable motion of the bicycle ; the speed and 
the consequent exhilaration produced by inhaling more oxygen; 
the continual change of scenery beguiling the tedium of the 
way, etc. All these have their effect; but there is, I believe, 
a solid mechanical advantage possessed by the cycle over the 
natural means of progression, which lies at the bottom of the 
mystery. A short discussion of this may not prove uninterest- 
ing. 

Some seven years ago when the writer was an undergraduate 
he attended lectures of a certain professor who was fond of il- 
lustrating mathematical principles from examples which would 
appeal to his audiences. In this way the very question which 
heads the article cropped up, and was disposed of in the way I 
am about to describe. It is so simple that it cannot be new, 
and yet I do not recollect having seen it in print ; at least not 
in a cycling paper. 

The basis of this explanation is that walking is a horizontal 
but undulatory motion, whereas cycling is a horizontal motion 
in a straight line (the road inequalities being disregarded). 

The truth of the first proposition is evident. When a man 
walks his legs are alternately side by side for a moment, and 
both touching the ground some distance apart for a moment. 
The legs may Ijc considered as describing alternately arcs of a 
circle, whose center is the hip joint, the radius the length of 




C. C. F. SCHWARZ, 
One Mile Philadelphia Champion, 



sPAi. ding's official bicycle guide 



59 



tlie leg. Now, when the legs are side by side the whole body 
is in a straight line, at its greatest height above the ground. 
But when the legs are stretched apart, each foot touching the 
ground, the distance of the body from the ground is no longer 
the length of the leg, but somewhat less. The legs are in this 
case in position like an inverted V, and the distance of the ver- 
tex of the letter form a line joining its extremities is obviously 
less than the length of either leg. For if the extremities are 
joined, making a complete triangle of the letter, and if then a 
vertical line be drawn equal in length to either of the sides from 
the vertex of the triangle downwards, it will be found to pro- 
ject below the base line. But this central line occupies the 
position of the legs when side by side ; hence, the body must be 
higher when the legs are side by side than when stretched apart 
in the act of taking a step. The body therefore falls, and it 
must be raised again before the next step. 

This produces an undulatory motion which is inseparable 
from walking. The amount of undulation varies ; it is sup- 
posed to be about two inches in Europeans, but in Negroes 
much more. At each step therefore the whole body is raised 
two inches, or the sixth of a foot, and if a man weighs 144 
pounds he will have to do 24 pounds of foot work at each step, 
foot-pound being as its name implies, the force required to raise 
one pound through one foot. An ordinary space is supposed 
to be about thirty inches, or two and one-half feet, so that the 
number of times two and one-half feet is contained in a mile 
multiplied by twenty-four will give the number of foot-pounds 
of work which the said man must perform in walking a mile. 
And be it observed, this is all sheer waste and does not include 
the force required to propel the body forward in a straight line. 
It is hardly necessary to prove that a bicycle moves in a straight 
horizontal line, with the rider on it ; but it is not so easy to 
find the force required to keep a bicycle in motion. But it 
can be roughly estimated in this way. A good spring balance 
is attached to the front of a bicycle and a long cord to the other 
end of the balance, which an assistant holds. You then mount 
the wheel, and when it is properly started the assistant runs 
and tows (another bicycle could do this better). The rider 
must then put his feet on the rests, and craning forward his 
neck observe what strain is indicated by the balance. If it be 
say, seven pountls, then seven times the number of feet in a 
mile will be the number of foot-pounds of work performed in 
going a mile. I myself made experiments of this kind antl so 
did other students. The results were very dissimilar. How- 
ever, our worthy lecturer, who had suggested this method, tab- 
ulated the results with the utmost gravity. The average was 




HH '^ 



SPAI.DINC'S OI-FICIAI. KICYCr.E C.UIDK. 6l 

aI>()Ul. seven pounds, l)iit sonic were as hiij;Ii as ten pounds, 
others only five or six pounds. Of course, the rate of towing 
directly affects the results obtained. The strain of seven 
pounds appears to correspond with a speed of eijdit miles an 
hour. The work done (according to this) in going a pace is 
(7x2/^) foot-pounds against a waste of twenty-four foot-]iounds 
walking, for a man of ten stone hnir pounds. This certainly 
shows a balance in favor of cycling. 

The experiments above described were crude in the extreme, 
and the machines were heavy also. Some readers may possibly 
investigate the question themselves. A bicycle would be the 
best to tow with, and there should be a means of estimating the 
speed corresponding with a certain strain. The road, too, 
should be quite level, fairly smooth, and the motion not against 
the wind. 



62 Spalding's official bicycle guide. 

LENDING TO FRIENDS. 

.^ 

One of the most touching passages in a treatise on "Cycling" 
is that wherein the writers depict the dissembled agony where- 
with a practiced cyclist permits his pet machine to be " tried " 
by a non-cycling friend. Another writer, touching on the same 
subject, disposes of it with the curt advice: "If you value 
your machine, never lend it to any body." 

This sounds churlish, and we should be loath to endorse so 
sweeping a recommendation; but it must be remembered, on 
the other hand, that the loan of a machine is a serious matter, 
and should neither be asked or acceded to, unless the borrower is 
known to have full competence for the trust. A man may lend 
a $5 note with a comparatively light heart, secure in the faith 
that the amount will be (sooner or later) repaid, and that one 
$5 note is as good as another. With cycles the matter stands 
on a different footing. In the first place, every machine de- 
mands a certain amount of adjustment to the idiosyncrasies of 
the rider, and the perfection of such adjustment is only 
attained after repeated experiments. Position of the saddle, 
height of handle bar, length of crank-throw; all these are im- 
portant factors in comfortable riding, and the golden mean 
once ascertained, should be strictly adhered to. If the machine 
is lent, even to a practical rider, it will probably come back 
altered in all these details, and a new course of experiment 
must be gone through before they can be made right again. 

This, however, is a comparatively small matter. Where the 
machine is lent to an unpracticed friend, the danger is far more 
serious. In such a case, Polonius' advice to Hamlet — 

Neither a borrower nor a lender be, 

For loan oft loseth both itself and friend — 

is not unlikely to receive a new illustration, loan and friend 
being very apt to be found in a anixed and shattered condition 
at the bottom of the first hill they come to. It is not necessary 
to assume special nialadroitness on the part of the unhorsed 
knight, but, as every rider knows from experience, a certain 
])roportion of accident is almost inseparable from one's earlier 
efforts. 



SPALUING's OKKICIAL lUCVCLE GUIDE. 63 



ADVICE TO LADY BICYCLISTS. 

We have cogitated much and deeply on this subject. We 
feel that readers — of the gentler sex, if any should honor our 
pages, miglit not unnaturally feel slighted should they find 
themselves apparently passed over. In truth, however, lady 
riders have so fully made good their title to the name of cy- 
clists that, with the exception of some minor matters of dress 
aud the like, advice to the one sex is equally advice to the 
other. We beg our lady friends, therefore, to consider that 
all our pages are addressed to them, equally with their hus- 
bands and brothers. We may, however, be permitted to add, 
not " for ladies only," but for ladies especially: 

Don't ride too fast or too far. 

Ride a suitable machine. 

Machines adapted for ladies' use are manufactured by all the 
leading makers. They should be: 

Not too heavy. 

Not too complicated. 

Anijily jirovided with brake power. 

Easily mounted and dismounted from. 

Don't ride unattended by a male relative or friend; don't 
accompany any club runs unless especially small and select; 
always ride in correct cycling costume; stick to the " all wool " 
principle, and don't have your skirt either too long or too full, 
these l)eing fertile sources of accident; don't lace tightly; use 
a Christy Saddle with a short neck, as especially constructed 
for ladies' use. 

When touring, carry your own soap, also a few tablets of 
chocolate or good Muscatel raisins. These, by way of road- 
side "pick-me-ups." 

Carry a waterproof cape, but don't ride in it. 

Carry a menthol cone. Drawn gently over the forehead, it 
is a capital thing for a headache, or to soothe the nerves when 
over-fatigue won't let you sleep. 



64 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



BICYCLING HYGIENICALLY CONSIDERED 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 



SEAT OR SADDLE. 

By Sanger Brown, M. D. 

Professor of Medical Jurisprudence and Hygiene, Rush Medical College, 
Chicago. 

Having so strongly indorsed bicycle riding as a healthful 
form of exercise I must now sound a note of warning of the 
danger which sometimes results from the practice. This danger 
has reference to the form of seat or saddle used. The medical 
journals contain records of many cases where serious damage 
has been done to the urethra and prostate gland from this 
cause. 




FIGURE I. 



In order that the exact manner in which the harm is done in 
this particular case may be better understood, let me say a few 
words in regard to the physiology of sitting in general. In 
sitting properly, as you may see by reference to Figure i, which 
represents the bony pelvis seated upon a plain surface, the only 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



65 



tissues subjected to pressure are the soft parts situated between 
the bony prominences (the iscliial tuberosities), B, C, and the 
surface sat upon. No permanent injury can result from the 
pressure of these tissues, because they are composed only of 
skin, fat, etc., but the tissues which do contain organs pecu- 
liarly lialile to injury from pressure, namely the urethra and 
prostate gland, lie beneath and posterior to the bony arch, A, 
therefore, any form of sitting which involves pressure upon 
these parts is especially harmful. If a seat is slightly up- 
holstered, pressure upon the soft parts, overlying the bony 
prominences, B, C, is somewhat disturbed and, therefore, less 
intense on any given part. 




FIGURE 2. 

But if the seat is upholstered too deeply it is not practical to 
keep the material used from packing or otherwise getting out 
of order, and if frequently used several hours together, the 
parts in contact with it become uncomfortably heated, thus 
favoring the development of hemorrhoids; and, worse than 
this, parts of the upholstering rise up, as shown in Figure 2, 
and exert pressure upon the tissues lying beneath and behind 
the bony arch. A, thus injuring the organs therein contained. 
Now, while slight pressure exerted upon these organs in sitting 
for a comparatively short time on a deeply upholstered seat 
causes no discomfort, yet if such a seat be used daily for many 
consecutive hours, as is the case with office employes, then all 
the objections just enumerated are found to be of great im- 
portance, so that such people invariably use either a very 
lightly upholstered seat or one which is not upholstered at all. 

Figure 3 represents the style of seat or saddle which, with 
some slight and unimportant modifications, came into use with 
the advent of the "safety" and is still much ridden. It is 
known as the ordinary hananiock saddle and is too familiar an 



66 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



obji'Ct to all bicycle riders to require much description. I may 
remind you, however, at this point that inasmuch as it simply 
consists of a strong piece of leather stretched between two 




FIGURE 3. 

points, connected by a steel spring, its shape changes very 
much under the weight of the rider; that is to say, it is pressed 
down in the middle and the ends approach one another. 




FIGURE 4. 

By an examination of Figure 4, which shows the position 
occupied by the pelvis when seated upon the hammock saddle 
you perceive that the bony prominences, B, C, are not sup- 
ported at all and that the soft parts immediately underneath 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 67 

and posteiior to the bony arch, A, bear the entire weight of 
the body; that is tlie prostate jjjland and that part of the urethra 
lying in the tissues beneath this arch are exposed to constant 
pressure and irritation. Now, no more objectionable form of 
seat could possibly be devised than this one; nothing could 
be contrived which more outrageously violates the physiologi- 
cal principles of sitting. 




FIGURE 5. 

Figure 5, which represents a side view of the pelvis seated 
upon the same kind of saddle, shows, rather more clearly in 
some respects than Figure 3, just how the weight of the body is 
supported and how the tissues, beneath and behind the bony 
arch, A, are subjected to pressure and irritation. 




FIGURE 6. 

Figure 6 represents another style of saddle much in use, made 
of solid material, as wood or metal, and covered with leather. 



68 



Spalding's official bicycle guid£. 



It has been brought forward as an improvement upon that 
represented in Figure 3. It has graceful curves and looks very 
much like a miniature equestrian saddle, having both a horn 
and cantle. Its beauty and the sentiment commonly enter- 
tained in regard to an equestrian saddle doubtless has had 
much to do with making it popular. The upper surface is made 
to conform to the soft jiarts, thus securing a wide distribution 
of pressure, not unlike that supplied by a deeply upholstered 
seat, and when first sat upon it is extremely comfortable, for 
the same reason that a deeply upholstered seat is comfortable, 
but it is open to even greater objections, because, in the deeply 
upholstered seat a considerable portion of the pressure is dis- 
tributed to parts about the circumference of the buttocks, thus 
considerably diminishing pressure upon the perineum (the 




FIGURE 7. 

anatomical name of the soft parts lying immediately beneath 
and behind the bony arch. A, and containing part of the 
urethra and prostate gland), while in this seat the perineum 
and the neighboring parts receive nearly the whole pressure. 

By seating the bony pelvis on this saddle, however, as shown 
in Figure 7, it is seen that the bony prominences remain un- 
supported and the perineum is brought firmly in contact with 
the pommel; thus it is open to the same objection that belongs 
to the hammock saddle. In some specimens of this seat an 
attempt has been made to mitigate the injurious pressure on 
the perineum by supplying the pommel and other parts of the 
saddle with a cushion. This device seems rational, but the 
purpose of a cushion being to distribute pressure and the 
pommel of the saddle being so narrow the pressure, notwith- 



spaluing's official bicycle guide. 



69 



standint; the cushion, falls mainly upon the perineum and thus 
a fatal violation of the essential elements of a properly con- 
structed seat results. 

The term saddle is really an unfortunate one because it 
implies something to straddle. A bicycle is a vehicle and in 
no sense a horse and, therefore, the rider from the very nature 
of the case should have something to sit upon rather than 
something to straddle. The upper surface of an equestrian 
saddle is so broad and flat that the perineum is exposed to little 
if any pressure unless the rider is thrown forward upon the 
pommel, while a bicycle seat must permit the feet.to come close 
together, and a little reflection will convince any intelligent 
person of the absurdity of attempting to preserve in it the 
contour of an equestrian saddle. I must insist that the term 
saddle, used in relation to a bicycle, has been responsible for 
much damage and should be abandoned, the protests of the 
sentimentalists who like to speak of a wheel as a steed, 
notwithstanding. 




FIGURE 8. 

Figure 8 shows the pelvis resting upon a form of bicycle sea. 
which is entirely safe because the weight of the body is sup- 
ported precisely as it is upon a chair or stool. This seat has a 
firm metal base which does not change its form when subjected 
to the weight of the body. It is supplied with curled-hair 
cushions of a degree of firmness and thickness which suffices 
to distribute the pressure somewhat, without having any of the 
objections which have been previously alluded to as belonging 
to a deeply upholstered seat. Here there is no possibility of 



70 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 



pressure falling upon the perineum, the bony arch. A, and the 
parts beneath it being so high al)o-\e the surface of the seat. 
The projection forward cannot be regarded in any sense as a 
pommel, and you perceive it is so far below the plane or level 
of the perineum that it cannot possibly come in contact with it, 
so that on anatomical or physiological grounds it can exert no 
harmful pressure no matter how far forward it projects ; while 
it is of great value in rapid riding or riding over a rough road, 
for, by bringing the inner surface of the thighs in contact with 
it, the rider feels far more secure in his seat. 



FIGURE 9. 




FIGURE 10. 

Figure 10 shows a form of this seat which is designed for the 
use of ladies. The projection forward is only shortened in 
order that it may not interfere with the skirts, and not as a con- 
cession to the prejudice of those who, knowing that in some 
other forms of saddles the horn or pommel is an element of 
danger, might, therefore, think it ought to be done away with. 
As women have no prostrate gland and the situation of the 



SPAI.niNG S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 71 

urethra is such tliat it cannot be pressed against the under sur- 
face of the bony arch, A, they are much less liable to serious 
injury from riding any form of saddle than men are. In young 
girls, however, the friction incident to riding'a faulty form of 
saddle has not infrequently resulted in the formation of perni- 
cious habits. 

Some extra care should be exercised in adjusting a seat with 
an unyielding base. It should be so placed that the posterior 
part of the thigh does not come into forcible contact with its 
anterior edge. The objection is obviated by not fixing the 
saddle too high, so that when the pedal is in the lowest position 
the leg remains somewhat bent. It should be borne in mind 
that many of the objectionable forms of saddle, on account of 
their more exact conformity to the soft parts and the corres- 
pondingly greater distribution of pressure, will be pronounced 
more comfortable when first ridden than this more correct 
form, just as a deeply upholstered seat will be pronounced 
more comfortable at first than a comparatively hard one, but 
any temporary discomfort which the rider suffers from when 
first using this correct form will soon disappear after he has 
properly adjusted it and ridden a few times. Finally, then, 
from the foregoing considerations, when you wish to determine 
whether a given bicycle seat is a safe one to ride or not, it is 
only necessary to place (a real or imaginary) bony pelvis upon 
it, as shown in Figures 4, 5, 7 and 8. If support is provided 
for the ischial tuborosities, B, C, and the construction is such 
that no pressure is exerted upon the tissues lying beneath and 
posterior to the bony arch, A, substantially as shown in Figure 
8, you may have no hesitation in pronouncing the seat a safe 
one. But, if on the other hand, the bony prominences, B, C, 
are not properly supported and pressure falls upon the tissues 
beneath and posterior to the bony arch. A, then you must pro- 
nounce such a seat or saddle dangerous if much ridden. 

And one thing further, I have seen a number of seats so con- 
structed as to present st)mewhat the appearance upon the upper 
surface presented by that shown in Figures g and 10, but they 
were provided with a leather instead of a metal base, and 
would therefore, when the weight of the rider was thrown 
upon them, alter their shape, the bony prominences pressing 
down the outer edges and thus forcing a ridge upward in con- 
tact with the perineum. So that before pronouncing upon a 
seat you must not only determine whether or not the form is 
correct as you inspect it, but you must ascertain whether or 
not it may assume an improper or dangerous form when ridden. 



72 SPALDING S Ol'I-'ICIAL BICYCLIC GUIDE. 



THE FORM OF BICYCLE SADDLES 



IN ITS RELATION TO THE 



PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CYCLING. 

By G. Frank Lydston, M. D. 

Professor of Surgical Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs, Medical 
Department of the University of Illinois. 

When the modern fad of bicycling first began, its importance, 
from a medical and surgical standpoint, was not appreciated by 
the medical profession, save in so far as the bicyclist presented 
himself, from time to time, suffering from the results of acci- 
dents experienced while riding. Since the practice of bicy- 
cling has become so universal, however, the question of both 
immediate and remote pathological disturbances incidental to 
it has assumed a position of the greatest importance. This is 
especially true of the genito-urinary practice — the especial field 
in which the disturbances produced by bicycling are most often 
noted. I recall that I was at first inclined to ridicule the 
notion that the practice of bicycling was likely to be productive 
of any pathological conditions that could justly be said to be 
peculiar to that special form of exercise. Extensive clinical 
experience has since taught me, however, that the bicycle must 
be given a very important position in the etiology of genito- 
urinary diseases. 

The instances in which the motion of the limbs necessary to 
propel the bicycle is productive of injury are relatively rare. 
It is true that the motion per se is a factor that deserves con- 
sideration ; but it is a matter of relatively minor importance 
save where some acute disease exists, in which event the objec- 
tion is not to bicycling especially; but to any kind of exercise 
involving movements of the lower limbs. 

It is not my purpose to discuss in detail the various forms of 
pathological disturbances that may be produced by bicycling. 
A few remarks anenc this point would seem to be demanded, 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 73 

however, for the purpose of showing inore clearly the practical 
character of the suljject under consideration. 

Tliere has recently appeared in tlie various medical journals 
considerable discussion of the different varieties of disease — 
organic or functional — tliat may be produced by bicycling. 

I am convinced that in many instances extreme and unwar- 
ranted deductions have been made and unreliable opinions 
have been formed. Thus, certain writers have claimed that 
acute urethritis may be produced by bicycling. I have no de- 
sire to appear dogmatic, but I must take the liberty of express- 
ing the opinion that no amount of bicycling can possibly pro- 
duce acute inflammation of the urethra. That injury of any 
portion of the uretlira, produced in riding a wheel or in mount- 
ing or dismounting, may induce simple urethritis, is undoubt- 
edly true, but that bicycling in itself can produce supuralive 
inflammation of a previously sound urethra, I do not believe. 
In the presence of pre-existing conditions of disease, however, 
l)icycling may ]5roduce an acute exacerbation of chronic in-, 
flammation. This is one of the most important points for con- 
sideration by the surgeon. Careful observation of an abund- 
ance of clinical material has convinced me of the importance 
of this. Acute exacerbation of inflammation — aggravation of 
acute or chronic inflammation already existing — is very fre- 
quent. That irritation of the urethra, prostrate, and bladder 
neck is often produced by bicycling I am firmly convinced. 
Irritations of the genital organs in both the male and female, 
which irritations may lead to chronic inflammatory trouble, 
are, unquestionably, often produced by bicycling. Diseased 
conditions of the genito-urinary organs are not only liable to 
be produced by bicycling, but also diseases of the associated 
parts. It is by no means unusual for patients suff'ering with 
hemorrhoids to complain of aggravation of their trouble due 
to riding a wheel. Persons previously free from hemorrhoidal 
trouble may develop it by bicycle riding. Variocele may be 
produced in a similar manner. 

A careful and unprejudiced study of the injurious results of 
1)icycling will convince any painstaking observer that the most 
important factor in the cpiestion of bicycling is, from a surgical 
standpoint, the conformation of the l^icycle saddle. The form 
of the saddle determines the question of disease due to a form 
of exercise which, under proper limitations, is admirable in its 
effects and most highly to be commended. The surgical im- 
portance of this particular point is my apology for its special 
consideration. 

The first form of saddle tliat was devised for the bicycle was, 
froni a surgical standpoint, the very worst form that could have 



74 Spalding's official bicycle guide, 

been devised. This, however, was due to the complete igno- 
rance both of riders and the manufacturers of bicycle saddles as 
to the function which was to be subserved by the saddle and 
the still denser ignorance, if possible, upon the anatomical, 
physiological and disease questions involved. It was perfectly 
natural that bicycle riding should have been considered by the 
laity as almost, if not quite, identical with horseback riding, in so 
far as the support of the body by the bicycle saddle was con- 
cerned. The public had had much experience with the horse 
saddle, and it was, therefore, not surprising that the conforma- 
tion of the bicycle saddle should have been made to conform to 
the ordinary horse saddle. The graceful lines and curves of 
the latter appealed very forcibly to the public as the ideal 
standard for conformation of the bicycle saddle. Even at the 
present time the layman who selects a bicycle saddle is most 
likely to favor that form which presents the broadest curve and 
conforms most nearly to his ideas of the saddle as he has formed 
them from his knowledge of the conformation of the horse 
saddle. If the superior plane of a bicycle saddle does not pre- 
sent the curved plane characteristic of a horse saddle, and if 
the bicycle saddle has no pommel, the layman will, as 3 rule, 
have none of it. 

The average bicycle rider seems to think that the bicycle 
saddle is designed to be straddled in the same manner that he 
would straddle the back of a horse ; when, as a matter of fact, 
there is the widest difference between the function of the horse 
saddle and the form adapted to the bicycle.- In the case of a 
horse saddle, however, there are such broad surfaces for the 
support of the body, that the weight must necessarily be equally 
distributed over a large area. In addition to this fact, a cer- 
tain portion of the weight is borne by the thighs, the gripping 
action of wliich is familiar to every equestrian. Another point 
that must be considered is the fact that even in the equestrian 
saddle the pommel is by no means necessary, and is often dan- 
gerous. Most of the accidents produced by the saddle in 
equestrianism are due to the sudden impact of the body, par- 
ticularly the perineum and genital region, against the pommel 
of the saddle. This is a fact which is sufficiently familiar, and 
yet the pommel idea is paramount in the minds of a large pro- 
portion of the laity and many manufacturers of bicycle saddles. 
The surface of the equestrian saddle is so broad and support by 
the pressure of the thighs is so easy, that slipping forward is 
not so very likely to occur unless some accident happens, such 
as the sudden stoppage or falling of the horse. With a bicycle 
saddle of similar shape, however, it is practically impossible for 
the rider to avoid slipping forward upon the small curved plane 



spaluing's official bicycle guide. 



75 



of the saddle, thus bringing the pommel in contact witli the 
perineum and genital organs. The function of the bicj'cle sad- 
dle is not to support the weight of the rider sitting astride ; on 
the contrary, its function is to support and balance the weight 
of the rider sitting squarely upon it, very much as a small chair 
or stool might do. Irrespective of its conformation, no bicycle 
saddle is rational that does not perform this function, and any 
other function it may be made to subserve is entirely super- 
fluous. 




Fig. I. 

The conformation of the horse saddle is so familiar that a 
typical illustration is hardly necessary, and yet, perhaps, it will 
be useful for the purpose of comparison. The saddle shown in 
the illustration is the form that is preferred by most equestrians. 

A moment's reflection will show that the horse saddle is not 
only designed to meet the demand for the support and comfort 
of the rider, but also for the comfort of the living animal that 
carries the rider. It must also be made to conform to the 



76 SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 

shape of the back of the horse. It will at once be seen that 
there are certain conditions to be fulfilled in the structure and 
conformation of the horse saddle that do not exist in the case 
of the bicycle saddle. Ideas of the proper conformation of the 
bicycle, based upon that of the liorse saddle, are therefore 
manifestly absurd, and yet the moit popular saddle with the 




Fig. 2. 



laity has hitherto been a form that is practically a horse saddle 
in miniature, a typical illustration of which is seen in Figs. 2 
and 3. 

In using this saddle the rider must necessarily sit astride it. 
The pommel is not only a ridiculously prominent feature of the 
saddle, but the curved plane of its upper surface — which is 



Fig. 3. 

accentuated posteriorly — must necessarily force the rider for- 
ward, so that the weight of the body rests upon the sharply 
projecting anterior portion. Not only is the weight of the 
body supported largely by the front part of the saddle, but 
certain sensitive anatomical points are brought to bear upon it 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 77 

in such a manner as to produce injury. As far as injurious 
pressure is concerned, the pommel of the bicycle saddle is much 
more objectionable than that of the horse saddle. 

Figs, 4 and 5 sliow a bicycle saddle which has been used 




FIG. 4. 

quite extensively, and which is little short of a monstrosity 
from the standpoint of anatomical adaptation. No more injuri- 
ous form of bicycle saddle could well be devised. 

It might be well to call attention to the fact that in these 
faulty forms of saddles, the injurious effects are likely to be 
overlooked because remote. I will admit that tliese faulty 




Fig. 5. 

forms are often comfortable enough at first, unless the rider be 
subjected to severe jolting, but the pressure and friction inci- 
dental to the faulty conformation produce lesults which are 
none the less definite because gradually developed. I find 
that in a large proportion of instances in which bicycling has 



7« 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



produced disturbances distinctly referable to a faulty conformav 
tion of the saddle, the subject claims that he has been perfectly 
comfortable while riding and has not been aware of any in- 
jurious pressure at any time. This is the point that is quite 
likeJy to deceive manufacturer, rider and surgeon. 

On account of the fact that many riders who are not inured 
to exercise of any kind, and particularly bicycling, complain of 




the unyielding character of the ordinary bicycle saddle, at- 
tempts have been made to afford a soft, yielding, and at the 
same time, firmly supporting cushion. The result has been the 
pneumatic saddle of various forms. One of these is shown in 
Figs, 6 and 7. It is true that the average rider will find one 
of these saddles a very comfortable seat at first, but the sense 
of insecurity and fluctuation soon becomes very annoying. In 




Fig. 7. 

addition to this fact, the support afforded is ringlike in char- 
acter, and disturbance of the circulation of the parts included 
within the area of pressure inevitably results. This form of 
bicycle saddle is especially lial)le to induce the development 
of hemorrhoidal disease. Comfortable as the pneumatic saddle 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 79 

may ajipear to l)e, pressure is likely, sooner or later, to develop 
such lroul)le. It is well known to the practical surgeon that 
while a soft cushioned chair is more comfortable to sit upon, 
the man or woman who sits upon it continuously is very likely 
to develop hemorrhoidal disease. The individual who sits 
upon a hard, unyielding chair or stool may experience a sense 
of fatigue and be otherwise more or less uncomfortable on 
account of the hard, unyielding character of the surface upon 
which he is sitting but by comparison, he exceptionally de- 
velops hemorrhoidal disease. The weight of the body in the 
sitting position should be supported by the tuberosities of the 
ischii. (Points a, b. Fig. 11.) Sitting upon a soft cushion or 
saddle, those parts upon which the body should normally rest 
in the sitting posture are relieved of pressure, to a great extent, 
the pressure being distributed over other parts and producing 
more or less disturbance of the circulation and, a point which 
is of almost equal importance, overheating the parts. 

In the special form of pneumatic saddle shown in the above 
illustrations, the pneumatic element of the device simply serves 
to throw forward the weight of the body in such a manner that 
the pommel of the saddle comes in contact with the perineum 
and associated parts, so that the saddle really defeats the object 
for which it was designed, namely, the prevention of injurious 
pressure. I will call attention td the fact that the distribution 
or equalization of pressure which is aimed at in pneumatic 
devices is not at all logical, because it protects parts which 
cannot possibly be injured by the pressure of the saddle, 
whereas the deep urethra and prostate in the male and equally 
sensitive parts in the female, are not only not protected abso- 
lutely from pressure, as they should be, but the measure is 
accentuated. In order that a bicycle saddle shall conform to 
anatomical demands it must fulfill the following requirements: 

1. It should be so constructed that the weight of the body 
shall rest upon the broadest part of the saddle. 

2. The weight should be supported entirely upon the tuber 
ischii. (Points a, h. Fig. 11.) 

3. The saddle should be broad enough to avoid the necessity 
of the anatomical points of support resting upon its edge. 

4. The plane of the saddle should be as nearly level as 
possible, so that the relation of the saddle to the anatomical 
points of support of the body is the same as the supporting 
plane of a cliair would be. 

5. There should be no upward projection of the saddle 
anteriorly, which by any possibility can come in contact with 
the perineum or genitals. 

6. The structure of the saddle should lie moderately firm. 



8o 



Spalding's official bicycle guidK. 



the jolting being reduced to a minimum, not by an elastic 
cushion, but by springs beneath the saddle. 

If these requirements be fulfilled the delicate anatomical 
points, pressure upon which is likely to produce injury 
in bicycle riding, can in no way be brought in sufficient 
intimate relation to any part of the saddle to produce 
injury, either immediate or remote. The base of the saddle 
should be unyielding, so that the plane of support upon which 
the tuberosities of the ischia rest (Pig. Ii) cannot be forced 
downward by the weight of the body in such a manner as to 
bring any portion of the saddle in contact with the perineum. 
If the saddle be properly constructed there is no pommel or 
horn, properly speaking; still, if made of yielding materials, it 
might be possible for the anterior portion of the saddle to be 




impinged upon by the perineum as the base of support gave 
way under the pressure of the body. Inasmuch as the support 
should be afforded entirely to the bony prominences of the 
buttocks, there is no necessity for any point of support in the 
middle line or perineum; hence there is no necessity for 
upholstering the saddle at this point. Should it be upholstered 
in the middle line it would be impossible to raise the perineum 
out of the way of dangerous pressure without building up the 
saddle to a preposterous height on either side. 

Figs. 8 and g show the only form of saddle which perfectly 
fulfils the requirements outlined. This saddle is the form de- 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 8i 

sigHed for male riders. The projection anteriorly is not de- 
signed as a pommel in any sense whatever. 

Tlie frame or foundation is of slieet steel, molded to the 
proper shape. The cushions for the support of the buttocks 
are upholstered with curled hair. This is the only material 
possessing sufficient softness and elasticity which is at the same 
time so firm and unyielding as not to change its shape under 




Fig. 9. 

the weight of the rider. The anterior projection or horn is so 
far l)elow the surface of the cushions on which the buttocks set 
that it cannot possil)ly come in contact with the perineum. In 
riding at high speed or over very rough roads the support that 
the rider may derive from it by pressure of the inner surface 
of the thighs adds considerably to his security. The horn is 
sometimes dispensed with, as shown in Fig. 10, a form designed 




Fig. 10. 

for female riders, in whom the skirts are likely to become en- 
tangled with the horn of the saddle. The absence of the horn 
seems to in no way impair the comfort and utility of the saddle. 
Fig. II shows the relation of the bony pelvis to a .saddle of 
proper conformation when the rider is seated squarely upon it. 



82 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 



It will be at. once observed that the sub-pul)ic region (r) which 
corresponds to the situation of the anatomical points, pressure 
upon which should be avoided, clears the saddle completely. 
There is no possibility of injurious pressure at any point, for 
the weight rests entirely upon the tuberosities of the ischia 
(a, b). Even should the rider slide backward, forward or 
laterally upon the saddle, no worse harm can result than loss of 




Fig. II. 

balance and possibly a fall from the wheel, which might occur 
with any form of saddle. No sensitive parts can possibly be 
brought in contact with any portion of the saddle in such a man- 
ner as to produce injurious pressure. 

In the saddle shown in Figs. 13 and 14 an effort has been 
made to fulfil the requirements of an anatomical saddle with 
the result of the conformation, which is even worse than the 
varieties in which the lines of the ordinary horse saddle are 
aimed at. In this defective saddle the cushions of support are 
too low, and the base of the saddle is so yielding that the re- 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE, 



83 



suit is ]5ractically the same as if the saddle were upholstered in 
the median line, so far as pressure upon the perineum is con- 
cerned. Then, too, as this saddle yields to the pressure of the 
body, it curves up in such a manner that the unnecessary pom- 
mel is made still further injurious by being crowded forcibly 
against the perineum. 




1 recognize the fact that when first used, a saddle that is 
rational from an anatomical standpoint, is by no means as com- 
£ortal)le, especially to beginners, as the ordinary varieties. The 
pressure is concentrated, as it should properly be, upon the soft 
tissues covering the tuberosities of the ischi;t and is necessarily 
relatively greater than if the weight were more evenly distributed 
upon the saddle, as it is in the defective varieties that I have 
described. When the rider becomes used to the anatomical 
saddle, however, it is quite as comfortable as any of the other 
forms, and during the time he or she is becoming accustomed 
to riding it, no injury has resulted, the temporary discomfort 
being of no moment. After a few weeks or months' riding, 
however, the defective saddle, which was at first quite com- 
fortable, will have develojied in many instances, pathological 



84 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



diseased conditions of the organs in relation to the perineum. 
The rider may be even at no time aware of injurious pressure, 
or even the slightest discomfort, and yet inflammation of the 
delicate organs upon which the faulty saddle is pressed has de- 
veloped. With a defective saddle there may be temporary 
comfort, but there is the plus element of danger ; whereas, with 




Fig. 13. 
a saddle of proper construction from an anatomical standpoint, 
the element of danger does not exist, although there may be 
temporarily some slight discomfort experienced while becoming 
habituated to its use. 

I believe that a careful study of the various forms of saddles 
will lead the ])ractical surgeon to agree with me in the fore- 
going conclusions. Of this much I am certain: the question 
of bicycle riding is a very important one to the medical man. 




Fig. 14. 
perhaps more so than any form of outdoor exercise or physical 
training that has ever been devised, and if my premises be cor- 
rect as regards the importance of the conformation of the 
bicycle saddle in relation to the development of pathological 
conditions, which experience has proven to occur from bicycle 
riding, the foregoing discussion is certainly of practical im- 
portance and worthy of serious consideration not only by the 
nhysician, but by the general public as well. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



85 





BICYCLE RECORDS 

CompUed by CHAS. W. MEARS. 



WORLD'S RECORDS. 



IN COMPETITION. 



Riders. Track and Date. 

..A. I. Brown Decatur, IlL. Oct. 13, 1894 



Distance. Time. 

*I4 miles 38 3-5. 

% " 29 3-5 Tom Cooper Rochester, N. Y., June 10, 1896 

Vi " 38 1-5....W.C. Sanger.... Chicago, 111., July 11, 189G 

Vi " 58 4-5.... Tom Cooper Chicago, 111., July 3, 1896 

1.18 2-5.... James Michael.. New York, Sept. as, 1897 
1.25 .... 

..Buffalo, N. Y., July 3. 1897 



.New York, Sept. 25, 1897 
.Boston, Mass., Sept. 18, 1897 



1 " .... 1.49 ... 

2 " .... 3.37 3-5... 

3 " .... 5.28 ... 

4 " .... 7.16 4-5... 

5 " .... 9.05 3-5... 
10 " .... 18.08 1-5... 
15 " .... 27.14 4-5.... 
20 " .... 30.411-5.... 

25 " 4.5.58 4-5 " .. " 

50 " .... 1.44.49 2-5.... J. W. Stocks.... Glasgow, July 31, 1897 

100 " .... 3.30.48 1-5.... C. Huret Paris, Aue. 14-15, 1807 

200 " .... 7.26.18 .... " 

300 " ....11.32.15 .... " 

400 " ....1.5.58.18 1-5.... " 

500 " ....20.54.15 1-5.... " 

♦ Class B record 



All others professional records. 



Hrs. Miles. Yards. 



HOUR RECORDS. 
Riders. 



Track and Date. 



, 31....1363 2-3.... Tames Michael New York, Sept. 25, 1897 

,564.... 1510 ....C. Huret Paris, Aug. 14-15, 1897 



AGAINST TIME. 

Distance. Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

Vi miles 202-5.. ..J. S. Johnson... .Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 28,1896 

^ " 274-5.... " .... " Oct. 29,1896 

14 " 44 1-5.... 

% " .58 3-5.... \V. \V. Hamilton. Coronado, Cal.. March 2, 1896 

Yi " .... 1.101-5.... I. S. Johnson.. ..New Orleans, La., Nov.12,1896 
1 " .... 1.352-5.. .E. A. McDuffie.. Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 28, 1897 



86 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



Distance. 


Time. 




Riders. 


Track und Date. 


1 


miles 


1.35 2-5. 


..T. 


W. Stocks... 


.London, Sept. 8, 1897 


a 


" 


3.27 


. .K 


A. McDuffie. 


.Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 2 


3 


" 


5.13 1-5.. 


• ■1. 


Platt-Betts.. 


.London, Aug. 12, 18.,7 


4 


" 


7.02 2-5.. 




" 


" " 


5 


" 


8.50 4-5.. 


..T. 


W. Stocks... 


.London, Sept. 11, 1897 


10 


" 


... 17.471-5.. 




" . . . 


" Sept. 27, 1897 


15 


" 


... 26.54 1-5.. 




" 


" " 


20 


" 


. . . 36.05 1-5. . 




" . . . 


" " 


as 


" 


... 45.19 2-5.. 




" 


" •' 


50 


" 


... 1.36.23 2-5.. 


..M 


Bouhours. .. 


.Paris, Sept. 30, 1897 


100 


" 


... 3.25.214-5.. 


..K 


Palmer 


.London, Oct. 14, 1897 


a(K) 


" 


... 7.20.27 


. .M 


Cordang. . . . 


.London, Sept. 15-16,1897 


300 


" 


...11.20.25 3-5.. 




" . . . . 


" " 


400 


" 


...15.18.47 .. 




" 


" " 


500 
600 


" 


...19.17.28 1-5.. 
...23.26.34 1-5.. 




:;:: 


: '' 



Hrs. Miles. Yards. 

1.... 32.... 1086... 

a4....616.... 340... 



HOUR RECORDS. 

Riders. Track and Date. 

.J. W. Stocks London, Sept. 27, 1897 



M. Cordang London, Sept. 15-16, 1897 

UNPAGED MILE RECORD. 
1 mile 1.59 1-5 C. R. Coulter Denver, Col., Oct. 2,1896 

AMERICAN RECORDS. 
PROFESSIONAL. 



IN COMPETITION. 



*li m 
% 

r* 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



Time. 

.28 3-5.. 

.29 3-5.. 

.38 1-5.. 

.58 4-5. . 

1.18 2-5.. 

1.35 . . 

1.49 .. 

3.37 3-5.. 

5.28 . . 

7.16 4-5.. 

9.05 3-5.. 

10..50 4-5. . 

12.42 2-5.. 

14..32 1-5.. 

16.19 2-5.. 

18.081-5.. 

19..56 2-5. . 

21.46 3-5.. 



Riders. 
A. L Brown.. . 
Tom Cooper., . 
W. C. Sanger. . 
Tom Cooper. . . 
James Michael 



Track and Date. 
.Decatur, 111., Oct. 13, 1894 
.Rochester, N. Y., June 10, 1890 
.Chicago, III., July 11, 1896 
.Chicago, 111., July 3, 1896 
.New York, Sept. 25, 1897 

."Buffalo, N. Y., July 3, 1897 

.New York, Sept. 25, 1897 

.Boston, Mass., Sept. 18, 1897 



10 
11 
12 
* Class B record. All others professional records. 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



87 



Distance. 

13 miles. 

14 ' 
l.T ' 

]() ' 

17 ' 

18 ' 
1!) ' 
20 ' 

ai ' 

2.-! ' 

tH ' 

2") ' 



2S 
•2<.) 
HO 

m 
H-i 

33 
3.-) 
40 
4.5 

r,o 

60 
C") 
70 

7.5 

80 
8.5 
90 
05 
100 
125 
1.50 
105 



/« Cotnpetition — Contiii tied. 
Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

, .James Michael. . .Boston, Mass., Sept. 18, 1897 



23.35 
25.27 1-5 

27.14 4-5 
29.05 3-5 
31.01 2-0 
32 .53 3-5 
34.48 
3(i.41 1-5 
38.30 3-5 
40.25 4-5 
42.14 

44.08 3-5 
45..58 4-5, 
48..56 2-5. 
50.51 
52.43 
54.38 2-5. 
56.33 
58.30 4-5 
.00.25 3-5. 
,02.17 4-5. 
.30.39 1-5. 
,44.09 1-5. 
.57.40.3-5, 

11.09 3-5. 
24. .54 
,38.46 3-5. 
.53.42 . 

07.15 2-5. 
21.14 4-5. 
2.5.13 2-5. 
,48.45 
03.22 . 
18.48 
33.-52 
.50.33 

10.36 4-5. 
.57.34 1-5, 



. . Frank Waller 



. Frank Albert. 
.Frank Waller 



T. A. Barnal.y 
. Frank Albert. 
. Frank Waller 



.T. A. Barnaby 
. Frank Waller 



York, Sept. 



25, 1897 



Boston, Mass., Aug. 10, 1897 



Hr. Miles 
1 31. 



Distance. 

1 miles. 

2 ' 

3 ' 

4 ' 

5 ' 

6 ' 



HOUR KECORD. 
Yards. Rider. Track and Date. 

.1303 2-3. . . .James Michael New York, Sept. 25, 1897 

INDOOR COMPETITION. 



1..57 
4.02 

6.04 
8.05 
10.03 
12.07 
14.09 
16.10 
18.07 
20.08 
22.07 



Riders. 
Tom Cooper. 
Jas. Michael 



4-5.... 



Track and Date. 
Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 10, 1897 
Chicago, 111., Nov. 13, 1897 



New York, Nov. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 





Indoor Competition— 


Distance. 


Time. 


Rid 


ers. 


12 miles... 


24.08 1-5 


...Jas. 


Michael 


].) " ... 


20.10 2-5 




" 


14 " ... 


28.13 




" 


3.5 " .. 


30.12 1-5 






16 " ... 


32.12 2-5 




" 


ir " ... 


34.18 




" 


18 " ... 


36.21 2-5 






19 " .. 


38.23 




" 


20 " ... 


40.25 2-5 




" 


21 " ... 


42.26 3-5 




" 


22 " ... 


44.25 1-5 




" 


23 " ... 


46.28 3-5 




" 


24 " ... 


48.30 1-5 




" 


25 " ... 


50.39 1-5 




" 


30 " ... 


1.06.44 


.'.'.'c. W 


Miller 


50 " ... 


1.. 54.25 3-5 




" 


100 " ... 


4.07.01 




" 


200 " ... 


8.49.30 


. . . Louis 


Gimm. 


500 " ... 


30.20.00 


. . . Edwa 


rd Hale 


1000 " ... 




...Albert Shoch 


1.500 " ... 


ioa43.'66 


...Edward Hale 


1900 " ... 


140.43.00 




" 



-Continued. 

Trpck and Date. 
.New York, Nov. 25, 1897 



.Chicago, 111., Sept. 24- 



1896 



.Chicago, 111., Sept. 24-25, 1896 
.New York, Dec. 7-12, 1896 
.Washington, Mar.29-Apr.3,189; 
.New York, Dec. 7-12, 1896 



FLYING START— PACED. 



y> miles 
1/ •■' 




/1 


'.'.'. L 


1 " 


... 1. 




•3 




... .3. 


3 " 


5. 


4 " 


7. 


5 " 


... 8. 


6 " 


... 10. 


7 " 


... 12. 


8 " 


... 14. 


9 " 


... 16. 


10 " 


... 18. 


15 " 


... 27. 


20 " 


... 36. 


25 " 


... 46. 


30 " 


... 55. 


35 " 


...1.19. 


40 " 


...1..31. 


45 " 


...1.42. 


50 " 


...1.53. 


75 " 


...2.51. 


100 " 


...3..52. 


106 " 


...4.12. 



.20 2- 
.27 4- 
.44 1- 
.58 3- 
.10 1- 
.35 2- 
.27 
.191- 
.07 1- 
..54 
i.4u 1- 
1.38 4- 

:.28 1- 

.18 
;.09 3- 
.26 1- 
1.44 2- 
1.05 1- 
i..33 
I.. 55 
.08 
.12 
.18 
.20 
.14 
1.04 



J. S. Johnson. . 



W. W. Hamiltoi 
J. S. Johnson. . 
E. A. McDuffie. 

James Michael. 



Waller 



Nashville, Tenn , Oct. 
Oct. 

Coronado, Cal., March 
New Orleans, La., Nov. 
Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 
Oct. 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug 



28, 1890 

29, 1896 

2, 1896 
12, 1897 

28, 189? 

29, 1897 
. 9, 1897 



Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 19, 18Ef 



HOUR RECORD. 

Hr. Miles. Yards. Rider. Track and Date. 

1 32 6.52 James Michael Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 9, 1897 



SPALDING S OKKICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



FLYING START— UNPAGED. 



Distance. 

]4 miles. 

Vi " . 

'A " . 

% " . 

H " . 

1 " . 

3 " '. 

4 " . 
.5 " . 
6 " . 

8 " '. 

10 " . 

1.5 " . 

20 " . 



Time. 

.36 1-5. 

.32 3-5. 

.57 . 
.. 1.14 1-5 
.. 1.34 4-5. 
1.59 1-5. 
.. 4.27 . 
.. 6.46 4-5., 
. . 9.17 
. . 11.42 .. 
.. 14.25 
. . 16..50 
. . 19.15 2-5.. 
. . 24.10 ., 
. . 30.36 1-5.. 
. . 49.20 
..1.02.37 2-5.. 
..2.16.03 
..3.39.03 2-5.. 
..4.59.27 4-5.. 



Riders. Traclc and Date. 

..'\rthur Gardiner. Denver, Col., Dec. 4, 1896 
.W. W. Hamilton. Coronado, Cal., March 2, 1896 
.Arthur Gardiner. Detroit, Mich., July 21, 1897 

.W. C. Sanger Denver, Col., Nov. 16, 1895 

.A. B. Hughes Denver, Col., July 31, 1897 

.C. R. Coulter.... Denver, Col., Oct. 2,1896 

.Henry Bradis Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 12, 1896 

.A. B. Hughes Denver, Col., Aug. 21, 1897 

.Henry Bradis Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 21, 1896 



.A. F. Senn Louisville, Ky., Nov. 18, 1895 



.John Lawson Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 17,1896 

-C. \V. Miller Chicago, 111., Oct. 2,1897 



Hrs. Miles. Yards. 

1.... 24 (io... 

24.... 323 



HOUR RECORDS. 
Riders. Track and Date. 

F Senn Louisville, Ky., Nov. 18, 1895 

-- ■ -' , Col., July 30^31, 1897 



..S. G. Mei.xell Denv 



Distance. 

Ji miles. . 

'A " .. 

% " •■ 

H " •■ 

1 " .. 



STANDING START— PACED. 

Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

.30 J. S. Johnson Lewisburg, Pa., June 14, 1895 

" Louisville, Ky., Nov. 7, 1895 



. .. 1.15 3-5... 
... 1.30 
... 1.49 3-5... 
...10.11 1-5... 



Waltham, Mass., July 4, 1895 

E. McCrea Coronado, Cal., Feb. 14, 1896 



J. F. Starbuck Springfield, Mass., Sept. 13, 1895 



STANDING START— UNPAGED. 

M miles 30 J.Lee App Louisville, Kv., Sept. 18, 1897 

S " .37 4-5....F. Ed Schefski Coronado, Cal., April 17, 1896 

i " ....2.05 ....O. B. Hachenberger.. Denver, Col., July 4, 1896 

3 " ....4.24 2-5....A. B. Hughes Denver, Col., July 31, 1897 

3 " ....7.16 1-5.... A. F. Senn Louisville, Ky., Oct. 18, 1895 



HOUR RECORDS IN COMPETITION. 



Hrs. Miles 
1 . . . . 31 . 



Yards. 
1363 2-3. 
2.... 51.... 1670 
3.... 74.... 195 1-2. 
4.... 97....1073 1-;i. 
.').... 120.... .586 2-3. 
(■>.... 142.... 586 2-3. 
13.... 265.... 1735 
31..., 486. ...1151 



Riders. Track and D.ite. 

James Micha«l. . .New York, Sept. 25, 1897 

C. W. Miller Chicago, 111., Sept. 24, 1896 

Fred Schinneer. . .Grand Rapids, Mich., May 31, '97 

Louis Gimm " " 



.Chicago, 111., Sept. 24-35, 



go 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



Hrs. 


Miles. 


Yards 


36.. 


.. 582... 


528 


48.. 


.. 776... 




60.. 


.. 912... 


704 


72.. 


..1072... 




84.. 


..1210... 




96.. 


..1361... 




108.. 


..1488... 




120.. 


..1646... 




132.. 


..1793... 




142.. 


..1910... 





Hour Records in Comfetition — Continued. 

Riders. Tr.ick and Date. 
Albert Shoch Washington, Mar. 29-Apr. 3, '97 



.F.dward Hale New 



York. Dec. 7-12, 1896 



The records for 2 and 12 hours and all records from 14 hours up were 
made on indoor tracks. 



TANDEM IN COMPETITION. 

"Distance. Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

1 miles 1.46 1-5 Nat and Frank Butler .Boston, Mass., July 31, 1897 

2 " ....4.06 2-5.... 

3 " 6.39 1-5 Callahan-Walsh Boston, Mass., June 12, 1897 

TANDEM AGAINST TIME. 

;.3-5 Randall-Schefski...Coronado, Cal., April 11, 1896 

!3-5 Phillips-Wing Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 30,1896 

2-5 Randall-Schefski.. .Coronado, Cal., April 15, 1896 

. 4-5....Staver-Winesett. . . .Coronado, Cal., April 1], 1896 
'3-5 Randall-Schefski... Coronado, Cal., April 15, 1896 

1-5 Phillips-Bradis Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 30,1896 

2-5 Nat & Tom Butler. Boston, Mass., July 4, 1896 

! 3-5 Staver-Wineseft Coronado, Cal., April 15, 1896 

, . . Nat & Tom Butler . Boston, Mass. , July 4, 1896 
1 1-5. . . .Sager-Swanbrough .Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

12-5 Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6,1897 

. 2-5. . . .Swanbr'gh-Hughes. Denver, Col., Oct. 4, 1897 

)2-5 Fowler-Churcli Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

\ 2-5 Evans-Hatton San Jose, Cal., May 26, 1896 

1-5 Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa.. Nov. 6, 1897 

■ 1-5 Evans-Hatton San Jose, Cal., May 26, W.% 

)4-5 Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

. Evans-Hatton San Jo'^e, Cal., May 28, 18r6 

< 2-5 Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

.Sager-Swanbrough .Denver, Col., Nov. 23, 18(0 

. Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

I 2-5. . . .Sager-Swanbrough . Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

; 1-5.... Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

i 4-5 . . .Sager-S%vanbrough .Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

11-5.... Fowler-Churcn Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

' 3-5. . . .Sager-Swanbrough .Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

13-5.... Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

.Sager-Swanbrough . Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

! 4-5.... Fowler-Church Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 6, 1897 

I 2-5 Sager-Swanbrough. Denver, Col., Dec. 5, 1896 

!4-5....McCall-Sager Omaha, Neb., Nov. 16, 1897 



*'% miles 


. . . .23 


+K " 


... .22 


*Vi " 


... .31 


^Vi " 


... .31 


*^ " 


... .47 


+% " 


. . . ..51 


*24 " 


... 1.11 


^% " 


... 1.12 


*M " 


... 1.20 


+K " 


... 1.25 


*1 " 


... 1.42 


11 " 


... 1.51 


*2 " 


... 3.40 


+2 " 


... 4.04 


+3 " 


... 5.31 


+3 " 


... 6.17 


*4 " 


... 7.25 


+4 " 


... 8.26 


*5 " 


... 9.25 


+5 •' 


...10.37 


*6 " 


...11.19 


t6 '• 


...1.3.22 


*~ " 


...13.12 


+7 " 


...15.36 


*8 " 


...15.13 


+8 " 


...18..51 


*9 " 


...17.06 


+9 " 


...20.06 


*10 " 


...19.02 


+10 " 


...22.16 


til " 


...2.5.32 


+12 " 


...2.8.00 


•H3 " 


...30.27 



'3-5. 



* Flying start, paced. + Flying start, unpaced, 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 



91 



Dis 

t14 

+ir. 

+16 
+17 
+18 
+19 
+20 
+-,'1 
+2!i 
+23 
+24 
+25 



+i mil 

*1 " 



Tandem Against Time 

tanre. Time, 

miles.... 33.49 3 

" ....3.5.21 

" ....37.4? 1- 



....40.1.5 
....43.39 
....4.5.0.5 4-5., 
....47.34 4-5., 
.....50.03 2-5., 
.....52.30 4-5., 
.....54..57 1-5., 
.....57.26 2-5., 
,...59.50 2-5.. 



Continued. 
Riders. Tr.ick and Dat 

McCall-Sager Omaha, Neh., Nov. 



TRIPLET AGAINST TIME. 

.25 3-5. . { ^ MyT;^..^!';!^ !! .'."*! r New Orleans, La., Nov 6, 1896 

.48 2-5.. " Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1896 

1.19 2-5.. " NewOrleans, La.,Nov.6, 1896 

1 II i McDuffie, Church & I ni,-i j 1 u- n /-. -10 lon^- 

1.41 .. Fowler > Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 26, 1897 

3 38 3-5. . .} ^ Vei^ilier;!.'^.'^.'^ ^"'' I Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. .3, 1897 



.30 

,22 2-5. 
16 3-5. 
14 

11 1-5. 
07 3-5. 
01 3-5. 



TRIPLET IN COMPETITION. 



) Michael, Stons and ( t, ^ at t 1 <h <onr» 

\ P>ainbndge 1' Boston, Mass.. July 31, 1897 



1 miles.... 1.46 

5 " .... 10.04 2-5. . .] ■^"|',"a °l"eck!r.''.".'.';" \ Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 18, '97 

QUADRUPLET AGAINST TIME. 

23 

( aiiu 1111111^3 1 

i \l^^ll.^.. ^f .....-.- Xi^^A\^ 1 1 

Oct. 29, 1896 



+5-- 

+J.. 



( Weinig, Davis, Steensdn I xt i, -ii t /^ . oa 

, and Phillips.: (Nashville, Tenn., Oct. .30, 

.,..-. ( Waller, Myers, Brad is and ) 
' " I Staver ( 



in o t \ PhiU ps, Bradis, Irons and ^, . ,,, ^ ^ ,,, ,orv-, 

.49.1-5. «r-ii Chicago, 111., Oct. 12, 189i 

Mil er '■ ' ' ' 



1.40 2-5 



Phillips, Van Herik, Hr.a- I. 
) dis and Bainbridge ( 



Oct. 2, 1897 



^^ o oi- o - ) Phillips, Boone, Turville I ou-i 1 1 u- d xt o lunir 
*2.... .3..56,5-;,. and McCurdy ^ Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. .i, 1897 



*3.... 5.29 2-5. 
*4.... 7.23 2-5. 
*5.... 9.18 2-5. 
*6... 11.13 3-5. 
*7.... 13.09 2-5. 
*8 ...15.02 1-5. 
♦9....16..59 
*10.... 18.49 4-5. 



* Flying start, paced. + Flying start, unpaced. 



92 

Mile 
].. 

+1.., 

t 

1.. 



Spalding's official bicvci.k guide. 
QUADRUPLET EST COMPETITION. 

Time. Riders. Track .tihI Date. 

1 Ml I K J Waller, Leonart, Pierce 1 >> .. ,., t i o< -,.„^~ 

.. I.o0 4-o..^ ^^^ Sharer....: j- Boston, Mass., July 31, 1S!!r 

QUINTUPLET AGAINST TIME. 

1 /IP o K ( Callahan, N. Butler, Pierce, I r> .. i\,t a ■< -.or,/. 

. .1.46 2-5. y ^.^j^^ ^^^ Coleman ) ^^^^^n, Mass., A«g. 1, IHOC 

Flying start, unpaced. 

QUINTUPLET IN COMPETITION. 

1 ,^ ( Callahan, Walsh, Ha^gerty, ( t3„ » tm t i oi ion~ 

■■^■'^' ■; Reynolds and Bowden..:.)^°^'°"'^'«^^-'J"'>'-^''^'^"' 

SEXTUPLET AGAINST TIME. 

Hammond, Tarment, Mc- 1 

Lean, McLean, Stafford > Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 20, 1897 
and Grennan ) 



2.. 


.. 3.40 3-5. 


a.. 


.. 5.33 2-5. 


4.. 


.. 7.30 . 


5.. 


.. 9.27 3.5. 


f... 


..11.27 2-5. 


i . . 


..13.23 3-5. 



SEXTUPLET IN COMPETITION. 

( McDuffee, Caldwell, SuUi- | 
1.454-5.-: van, Mayo, Barnaby and i- Boston, Mass., July 31, 1897 
( Saunders ) 



AMATEUR. 



istance. 
: miles. . 



Time 
.26 4-5 
.27 1-4 
.40 3-5 
1.00 1-5 
1.00 1-5 
1.24 
1.35 1-5 
1.59 
2.00 2-5 
4.06 1-5 
6.22 3-5 
8.34 3-5 
10.33 3-5 



IN COMPETITION. 

Riders. Track and Date. 

.F. J. Loughead....Springfield, Mass., Sept. 12,1895 

.A. B. Howie Janesville, Wis., Oct. 10, 1894 

.P. J. Bornwasser. .Louisville, Ky., Sept. 4, 1897 

.E. W. Peabody Kalamazoo, Mich., Oct. 4, 18r;7 

.H. Middendorf Louisville, Ky., Oct. 23, 1897 

.A. A. Kaliska Warren, Pa., July 13, 1897 

.W. S. Reynolds. ...Springfield, Mass., Sept. 11,1895 

.W. Robertson Denver, Col., Oct. 2, 1897 

.F. F. Desmond.... Denver, Col., Aug. 8, 1896 

.O.W.Smith Waltham, Mass., June 17, 1897 

.F. H. Wilson Chicago, 111., Sept. 22, 1896 



.E. C. Hausman.. . .Springfield, Mass., Sept. 16,1897 



* P'lying start. + Standing start. $ Record for novice. 



Distance 


Time. 


6 miles 


... 12..58 2-5.... 


7 " 


... 1.5.07 2-5.... 


8 " 


... 17.24 3-5... 


9 " 


... 19.34 4-5.... 


10 " 


.. 21.47 3-5.... 


15 " 


... 32.40 1-5.... 


20 " 


... 43.47 


25 " 


... 54.35 .... 


30 " 


...1.12.34 1-5.... 


40 " 


.. 1.37.34 2-5.... 


50 " 


...2.06..30 1-5.... 


(JO " 


...2.39.01 



Sf-ALniNc/s OFFICIAi, KICYCI.E Gl'IDE. 

/;/ Co7iif^etition — Continued. 

Riders. Track and Date. 

F. H. Wilson Chicago, 111., Sept. 22, 1896 



93 



A. A. Hansen Minneapolis, Minn , Aug. 15,'95 



FLYING START— PACED. 



i 
I 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

8 
9 
10 
15 
20 
25 
28 
30 
40 
.50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
102 



les 



les 



. 1 

. 1 

. 1 

. 3 

. 5 

! 9 
. 12 
. 14, 
, 16 
. 18, 
. 20, 
, 30. 
, 41. 
, 51. 
, 58. 
,1.13 

1.37 
.2.02 
,2.30 
,2..5.5. 
,3.21 
,3.50 
,4.2;i 

4.29, 



.24 
.31 1 
.,50 2- 
,09 3- 
.18 
,43 2- 
,441- 
.53 1- 
52 

,54 1- 
05 

06 2- 
,13 2- 
14 

19 2- 
47 3- 
24 3- 
571- 
112- 
22 
.54 1- 
,28 2- 
02 
12 
25 
20 
08 
25 



E. A. Moross Detroit, Mich., Nov. 10, 1897 

" Nov. 8, 1897 



H. M. Sidwell Cincinnati, O., Oct. 7, 1897 

Oct. 5, 1897 
H. G. Gardiner. . .Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 11, 1897 

C. J. Miller Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 22, 1897 

Ray Duer " Oct. 23, 1897 



C. V. Dasey Denver, Col., Oct. 2, 1897 

Ray Duer Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 2, 1897 



A. C. Banker Chicago, 111., Sept. 4, 1897 

James C. Milier. .Cleveland, O., Aug. 28, 1897 



FLYING START— UNPAGED. 



.25 

M 

.55 

1.21 

1.21 

1.37 

2.04 

4.27 

4.27 

7.03 

9.31 

11.56 



A. B. Simons Deming. N. M., May 20, IS^G 

W. J. Ev.ins Coronado, Cal., April 13, 189G 

H. C. Clark Denver, Col., Oct. 17, 1895 

Jos. Heil Denver, Col., July 31, 1897 

F. B. Stowe Springfield, Mass., Oct. 20, 1894 

A. B. Hughes.. ..Denver, Col., May 27. 1896 

W. F. Sager " Oct. 3, 1896 

los. Heil " Aug.21,1897 

O.B.Hach'nb'g'r. " Dec. 13, 1895 



04 



Spalding's official bicycle guide. 



Fly i tig Start — L ^n paced — Contin tied. 



Distance. 




Time. 


Riders. 


10 miles.... 24.19 2-5 


...A. G. Kluefer... 


15 ' 






38.25 


. . . A.L. Hach'nb'g'r 


20 ' 






52.07 


. . .A. J. Thibodeen 


25 ' 






1.03.45 


" 


30 ' 






1.16.45 


" 


40 ' 






1.44.42 2-5 


" 


50 ' 






2.14.05 


" 


75 ' 






3.53.33 1-5 


. . . R. Lamicks 


100 ' 






5.16.24 2-5 




125 ' 






8.08.19 


" 


1.50 ' 






9.52.45 


" 


175 ' 






11.46.50 


" 



Track and Date. 
R'acine, Wis., July 2. 1897 
Denver, Col., Nov. 16, 1896 
Chicago, 111., Oct. 29, 1897 

Boston, Mass., July .31, 1897 

May 29-30, 1897 



STANDING START— PACED. 



|mi 


les 




.28 .. 


. . J. S. Johnson. . . 


T 






.32 


..F. L. Eberhardt 


i ' 






..59 


..A. W. Porter... 


t ! 






1.18 2-5., 


. , " 


j 






1.28 3-5.. 


" 


1 ' 






1.54 3-5.. 


..P. J. Becker.... 


2 ' 






4.07 2-5.. 


..Nat Butler 


3 ' 






6..36 . . 


. . J. H. Gardner.. 


4 ' 






8.51 


" 


5 ' 






10.07 2-5.. 


..C. W. Miller... 


10 ' 






23.04 3-5.. 


. . L. S. Meintjes. . 


15 ' 






34.37 . . 


" 


20 ' 






46.07 . . 


" 


25 ' 






57.40 3-5.. 


" 


30 ' 






1.19.414-5.. 


. . A. G. Harding. 


40 ' 






1.46.27 .. 


" 


50 ' 






2.12.45 3-5.. 


" 


75 ' 






3.24.37 4-5.. 


" 


100 ' 






4.37.56 4-5.. 


" 


125 ' 






6.09.01 


. . Louis Gimm. . . . 


1.50 ' 






7.23.12 .. 


" .... 


200 ' 






9.49.40 . . 


" .... 


300 ' 






14.38.41 .. 


" .... 


400 ' 






20.17.20 .. 


" .... 


452* ' 






24.00.00 . . 


" 



Independence, la., Oct. 31,1893 
Salina, Kan., Nov. 15, 1895 
Waltham, Mass., Oct. 20, 1894 
Nov. 2, 1894 

Denver, Col., Oct. 19, 1895 
Waltham, Mass., Nov. 10, 1894 
Springfield, Mass., Nov. 12, 1895 

Louisville, Kv., Nov. 7, 1895 
Springfield, Mass., Sept. 14,1893 



St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 24, 1894 



Cleveland, O., Aug. 14-15, 1895 



* Complete distance for 24 hours, 4.52 miles 1715 yards 



STANDING START— UNPAGED, 



J mile 



41 2-5. 




01 1-5. 




21 1-5. 




37 1-5. 




14 4-5. 




46 1-5. 




15 . 




47 . 




12 . 




16 . 




03 2-5. 




47 1-5. 





LTpson Sacramento, Cal., Oct. 17, 1894 

H. Middendorf Louisville, Ky., Sept. 6, 1897 

Peter Metcalf Chico, Cal., Aug. 29, 1895 

H. C. Clark Denver, Col., Oct. 17, 1895 

J. D. Park Denver, Col., Nov. 5, 1894 

Nils Carlson Cleveland, O , Sept. 25, 1897 

H. C. Clark Denver, Col., Oct. 4. 1895 

" Nov. 21,1895 



R. Lauricks Boston, Mass., June 26, 1897 



SPALDING S OKKICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



95 



Distance. 


Time. 


9 miles.. 


. 24.28 2-5.... 


10 " .. 


. 27.10 4-5.... 


15 " .. 


. 40., 55 3-5.... 


20 " .. 


. 54.42 2-5.... 


25 " .. 


.1.08.47 1-5.... 


30 " .. 


.1.23.05 


40 " . . 


.1,52.40 4-5.... 


50 " . . 


.2.23.25 3-5.... 



Standing Start — Unpaced — Continued. 

Riders. Track and Date. 

24.28 2-5 R. Lauricks Boston, Mass., June 2(5, 18!)7 



HOUR RECORDS AGAINST TIME. 



Hrs. Miles. Yards. 



1.. 


..28.. 


..1585... 


2.. 


.. 45.. 


..1530... 


3.. 


.. 6(i.. 


..1680... 


4.. 


.. 86.. 


..1320... 


5.. 


..101.. 


.. 440... 


6.. 


..121.. 


..1100... 


12.. 


..2.S8.. 


..1.320... 


18.. 


..3.5t).. 


..1100... 



24.... 452.... 1715. 



Riders. Track and Date. 

Ray Duer Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1897 

L. S. Meintjes Springfield, Mass., Sept. 14,1893 

A. G. Harding St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 24, 1894 

Louis Gimm. ..".'.'.. !.'.'.'.'cieveland, C, Aug. 14-15, 1895 



TANDEM IN COMPETITION. 



Distance. Time 

\ miles 35 

i " 56 .... 

I '• ....1.17 .... 

1 " . . . .1..55 3-5. . . .Hausman-Collett 

2 " ... .4.13 2-5. ... Fowler-Reagan.. 



Riders. Track and Date. 

Daviswortli-Miicliell. .Louisville, Ky., July4, 189G 



Waterbury, Conn., Sept. P, 1897 
Boston, Mass., July 5, 1897 



TANDEM AGAINST TIME. 



*\ miles 




. .25 4- 
. .24 4 


■\ " 




. .24 4 


*\ " 




. .34 2 


•tj " 




. .34 4- 


*J " 




. ..5;ii 


ti " 




. .51 3 


n " 




. 1.03 3 


*i " 




. 1.13 3- 


n " 




. 1.17 


*.? " 




. 1 25 


*i " 




. l.,52 3 


+1 " 




. 1.54 


+2 " 




. 4.12 3- 


3 " 




. 6.24 2- 


4 " 




. 8 361- 


5 " 




. 10.46 4- 



-5 
-5 
-5 
-.5 
-Ti 
-.5 

-4 

-5 

-5 

-5 
-5 
-5 
-5 



Haggerty-Williams. 

Rodgers- Fairies 

Casey-Eckberg 

Haggerty-Williams. 
M'R'yn'ds-Car'th'rs 
Haggerty-Williatns. 

Casey-Eckberg , 

Gillespie-Woods. ... 
Haggerty-Williams. 

Watts-Smith 

Haggerty-Williams. 

Hood-Carlson 

Watts-Smith 

Dasey-Goramflo. 



Waltham, Mass., Nov. 2, 1C91 
Decatur, 111., Oct. 27, 1896 
Springfield. Mass., Sept. 16,1897 
Waltham, Mass., Nov. 2, 1894 
.Denver, Col., July 2, 1897 
Waltham, Mass., Nov. 2, 1894 
Springfield, Mass., Sept. 16,1897 
Rockland, N. Y., Sept. 2, 1895 
Waltham, Mass., Oct. 27, 1894 
Denver, Col., Oct. 23, 1896 
Waltham, Mass., Oct. 27, 1894 

.Detroit, Mich., Oct. 2, 1897 
.Denver, Col., Nov. 23, 1896 
.Denver, Col., July 16, 1897 



* flying start, paced, + Flying start, unpaced. }■ Standing start, paced, 



g6 SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 

TRIPLET AGAINST TIME. 

Distance. Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

*i •! oo ' Callahan, Murphy I r^um- „.i, r> xt r lorn 

*i ""'" -'^ • • •, and Kennedy . . f Chilhcothe, O., Nov. 5, 1894 



or. o c ( Vesper, Bren and I r~ v v a m ior>i! 

.37 2-5. . < Hunt f ^^''"^' Kan., Aug. 21, 18% 

•53 • • ] ^'Hedges.' .^^!'^. ^. \ C°l""^'^"^. O., Sept. 11, 189^ 

1.20 1-5. . \ M"'-Phy- Kennedy ( l„„;,^;„ ^y., Nov. 2.3, » 

( and Saunders.... j > j > . ^ 

1.31 .. " 

1.52 2-5. . 1 ^V""^""' ^PP =*"'' !- Lot 



4.17 1-5. 



3 


" 


.. 6.29 


4 


" 


.. 8.43 


5 


" 


..10.571-5. 


10 


" 


..22.13 1-5. 


ri 


" 


..33.. 32 2-5. 


20 


" 


..44.. 50 1-5. 


25 


" 


...56.02 3-5. 


26 




..58.15 2-5. 


Hr 


Miles 


Yards. 


1.. 


..26.. 


.1.373.... Pi 



) Pierre, O NeiU and t>. -i j i u- t) a ir~ me- 

f, ' 1 Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 27, 96 

( Oracey 1 ^ ° 



HOUR RECORD. 
Riders. 



Track and Date. 



Pierre, O'Neill & Gracey. Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 27„ '96; 

QUADRUPLET AGAINST TIME. 

Miles. Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

oo ( Callahan, Seavey, O'Connor I „,.,,. .u /-» -nt c lonr 
•~3 •{ and Rhodes.. ^ Chilhcothe, O., Nov. 5, 1894 

] °'a^nd"Ter'rnr'"!!'.°"'.^?.''."'.'! [ Louisville, Ky., May 25, 1895. 

( Stone, Swanbrough, Dick- I y^ /-^ i /-> . i~ lonc 

■', J (^ -u ?• Denver, Col., Oct. 17, 1895 

* son and Lonnibear ( ' ' ' 

I O'Connor, Seavey, Steensen ( t „. ; -ii i- at o- -lonE 
1 J uu J 1 Louisville, Ky., May 2.1, 1895 

I and Rhodes ) i .i i j . 

( Stone, Swanbrough, Dick- I y^ /-- i /-. . i~ lont 

' J ,-, ■,*' ' y Denver, Col., Oct. li,]895 

son and Connibear ) ' ' 



.. .34 3-5. 


.. .51 . 


..1.15 . 


..1.24 . 


..1.47 4-5. 



* Class B records. 



<^ 



ROAD RECORDS-NATIONAL. 



ONE MILE STRAIGHTAWAY. 

Time. Rider. Track and Date. 

F. S., paced 1..55 1-5 A. Ferguson Terre Haute, June 2, 1897 

F. S.,unpaced.. 2.11 4-5.... H. H. Dr'nb'rg'r. 

S. S., p.aced 2.12 1-5. .. .Charles Franklin. '♦ " 

J. S., unpaced.. 2.16 4-5.... C. A. Foster •'» " 



SPALDINC S OFp-ICIAL EICYCLE GUIDE. 

•1 ANDEM ONE MILE STRAIGHTAWAY. 

Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

F. S., unpaced. .l..')5. . . .Hulman-Ferguson. . .Terre Haute, June 2, 1897 



STRAIGHTAWAY. 



Dlst 
5 
10 
1.5 
\'0 
2o 
50 

ICO 
200 
300 
100 
.")()0 
liX)l' 



ance. 
miles 



Time. 
9.24.. 
21.25.. 
34.32. . 

46.01.. 

.51.. 55.. 

2.15.(X).. 

None.. . 

4.40.09.. 

None.. . 

None.. . 

None. . . 

.56,05.00 . 

144.05.00.. 



Riders. 

,.T. O. Vau.x 

.A. B. McDonell. 



Track and Date. 
Colorado Springs, Oct. 28, 1896 
Buffalo, May 26, 1896 



Oct. 19, 1895 
Colorado Springs, May 10, 1895 



I.. C. Wahl.. 

A. B. McDonell. . .Buffalo, Oct. 28, 1895 



. A. E. Smith Chicago, June 28-July 1, 1896 

. R. P. Searle Chicago, Oct. 17-23, 1894 



5 m 

10 

15 

20 

25 

50 

75 

100 

200 

3(X» 

400 

500 

1000 

12 hou 

24 hou 



lies 



STANDARD COURSE. 

11.31 4 5.... A. G. Relyea.. Brooklyn, Oct. 31, 1896 

24.14 I..N.\Valleston.Newburyport, Oct. 4, 1895 

36.24 



48.58 

1.00.59 

2.30.40 

4.17.12 1-2., 

5.22.30 . . 
12.20.00 
22..56.08 

None. 

None. 
113.45.00 



..A L. Weinig.. Buffalo, Sept. 15, 1894 
. . Henry Smith . . Baltimore, May 23, 1897 
..P. C. Wright. ..Colorado Springs, Aug. 9, 1896 
.. A. W.W.Evans. New Brunswick, Aug. 19, 1895 
..Henry Smith... Baltimore, May 9-10, 1897 



..J. F. Gunther.. Chicago, Oct. 6-11, 1894 

miles Henry Smith . . Baltimore, May 9, 1897 

316 miles Elmer C.Davis. Baltimore, July 10-11, 1897 



5 miles. . 


. . 10.22 4- 


10 " .. 


.. 2:3.25 


15 " . . 


. . 36.42 


20 " . . 


50.17 


25 " . . 


..1.03.40 


75 " .. 


..3.45.00 


10 miles.. 


.. 27.05 3 


15 " .. 


.. 37.02 


25 " .. 


..I.IO.(X) 


50 " . . 


..2.21.10 


100 " .. 


..5.14.38 



TANDEM. 



STRAIGHTAWAY. 



. . .Di.\on-Kraft San Francisco, Sept. 26, 1896 

. .Wright-Fairley. . .Colorado Springs, June 20, 1897 



STANDARD COURSE. 

. ..Winton-Baird Cleveland, Oct. 19, 1894 

. .. Knuth-Roth State Line, N. Y., Aug. 25, 1895 

. ..Wills-Cochran....St. I.ouis. July 14, 1895 

. ..Wrighl-Fairley .Colorado Springs, June 20, 1897 



gS SI'ALDING'S official lilCYCLE GUIDE. 

STATE RECORDS. 



STRAIGHTAWAY 

FIVE MILES. 
Time. Riders. Track and Date. 

9.24 T. O. Vaux Colorado Springs, Col,Oct.!28,"Jb 

11 11 2-.5 Geo. Hamlin San Francisco, Cal., lS!ov.l7,'9.5 

11.18 1-5 W. A. Parker Waco, Tex., Nov. 29, 1894 

11.42 Linus Schillinger Syracuse, N. Y., Aug. 7,1890 

11. .50 E. Kostomlatsky Oskaloosa, Iowa, Oct. 27, 1S9.5 

12 1.5 W. A. Wenzel Philadelphia, Pa., July 7, 1894 

13.21 3-4 Henry Smith P.altimore, Md., May 23, 1897 

15.37 W. H. Ingham Salt Lake City, Ut., Sept. 22,'93 

STANDARD COURSE. 

FIVE MILES. 

11, .31 4-5 A. G. Relyea Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 31, 189(5 

11.49 L. N. Walleston Newbury port, Mass., Oct. 4, "95 

12..55 Monte Scott Plainfield, N. J., Oct. 12, 1894 

13.48 F. A. McFarland San Jose, Cal., Oct. 28, 1894 

15.54 R. A. Schwaner Winterset, la., Aug. 22, 1895 

STRAIGHTAWAY. 

TEN MILES. 

21 25 A. B. McDonell Buffalo, N. Y., May 26, 1896 

24.16 1-5 W. A, Parker Waco, Tex., Nov. 29, 1894 

24.27 F. M. Byrne San Francisco, Cal., Oct.19,'95 

25.28 E. Kostomlatsky Oskaloosa, Iowa, Oct. 27. 1895 

28.19 1-2 Henry Smith... Baltimore, Md.,May 23, 1897 

29.26 J. S. Jensen Salt Lake City, Ut., July 10,'94 

STANDARD COURSE. 

TEN MILES. 

24.14 L. N. Walleston Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 4, '95 

24.20 1-5 C. M. Hendrickson .Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 7, 1896 

26.04 Max M. Kreutz Denver, Col., Aug. 15, 1896 

26.07 2-5 Monte Scott Plainfield, N. 'J., Oct. 12, 1894 

26.34 H. C. Wood Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 17, 1895 

27.33 A. C. Mertens St. Paul, Minn., May .30,1895 

28.17 2-5 J. T. Graves Cleveland, O., Oct. 19, 1894 

28..501-4 E. Boren Dallas, Tex., Aug. 27, 1894 

29.10 W. H. Whitehead Memphis, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1894 

STRAIGHTAWAY. 

FIFTEEN MILES. 

3-1.32 A. B. McDonell Buffalo, N. Y., May 26, 1896 

40.00 W. A. Borton Oskaloosa, la., Oct. 27, 1895 

42.48 W. S. Furman Cincinnati, O., July 4, 1894 

45.36 1-2 Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 23, 1897 

49.40 T. D. Fenton ....Salt Lake City, Ut., May 30,'95 



SPALDING S OFFICIAL lilCYCLE GUIDE. 



99 



Time. 
36.24 
Sn.ru 2-5 
3(1.30 
4-i.2<.) 
44.38 1-5 



4G.01 

50.08 

53.30 

1.09.30 



48.. 58 

53.51 

52.51 4-5 

58.16 

58.56 

.5'.). 36 
1.02.12 
1.05.55 



.51.. 55 
1.02.38 



1.00..59 
1.05.21 3-4 
1.09.26 
1.09.42 2-5 
1.10.00 
1.10.30 2-5 
1.10.45 
1.21.33 1-2 
1.2ti.(l0 
1.2S.O0 



2.15.00 
3.14.00 
3.2.5.00 
3..")5.tX) 



STANDARD COURSE. 

FIFTEEN MILES. 
Riders. Track and Date. 

L. N. Walleston Newburvpon, Mass., Oct. 4. 1895 

C. M. Hendrickson Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 7, 1896 

Monte Scott Plainfield, N. J., Oct. 12, 1894 

A. Lejeal Erie, Penn., Sept. 1, 1894 

A. L. Proulx Kansas City, Mo., June 18, '94 

STRAIGHTAWAY. 

TWENTY MILES. 

A. P.. McDonell Ruffalo, N. Y., May 26, 1896 

W. A. Parker Waco, Tex., Nov. 29, 1894 

W. A. Borton Oskaloosa, la., Oct. 27, 1895 

Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1897 

STANDARD COURSE. 

TWENTY MILES. 

I,. N. Walleston Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 4, '95 

Monte Scott Plainfield, N. J., Oct. 12, 1894 

Chas. A. Kraft San Leandro, Cal., July 12, '96 

C. T. Earl Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 3. 1896 

W. S. Furman Lima, O., May 30, 1894 

C. E. Cause. Washington, D. C, Oct. 16, 1894 

D. L. Burnside Cedar Rapids, la., June 19, '95 

A. Lejeal Sharon, Penn., Sept. 6, 1894 

STRAIGHTAWAY. 

TWENTY-FIVE MILES. 

A. B. McDonell Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1895 

E. Tyler Smith Denver, Col., Sept. 7, 1896 

STANDARD COURSE. 

TWENTY-FIVE MILES. 

L. N. Walleston. Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 4, '95 

Monte Scott Plainfield, N. J., Oct. 12, 1894 

A. B. Goehler Buffalo, N. Y., June 4, 1895 

W. S. Furman Cleveland, O., May 30, 1895 

Ross MiUer St. Louis, Mo., July 14, 1895 

C. S. Wells San Leandro, Cal., Feb. 22,1896 

L. A. Callahan Providence, R. L, July 7, 1894 

Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 23, 1897 

S. T. Durant Salt Lake City, Ut., Oct. 10/95 

M. W. McCluif Dallas, Te.v. , Sept. 28, 1895 

STRAIGHTAWAY. 

FIFTY MILES. 

, L. C. Wahl Colorado Sp'ngs. CoL.May 10,'95 

.C. F. Manahan Ackley, la., Ann. 4, 1895 

,K. T. Whitson Grand Island, Neb., Sept.29,'95 

.1.. Wilmans Dallas, Tex., June-:W, 1894 



SrALDlNG's OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 



Time. 

2.30.34 

2.30.40 

2.43.29 1-: 

3.10.00 

3.15.00 

3.48.00 



4.17.12 1-2. 



STANDARD COURSE. 

FIF'IY MILKS. 
Rider. Track and Date. 

A W. W. Evans New B'nswick, N. J.,Aug.lO,'96 

.A E. Weinig Buffalo, N. ¥., Sept. 15, 1894 

.Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 23,1897 

.Ross E. Miller St. Louis, Mo., July 14, 1895 

.N. W. Hewett Salt Lake City. Ut., Oct. 6, '95 

.F. Taylor Dallas, Tex., March 23,1895 

SEVENTY-FIVE MILES. 
.Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 23, 1897 



4.40.00 



STRAIGHTAWAY. 

ONE HUNDRED MILES. 
.A. B. McDonell Buffalo, N. Y.. Oct. 28, 1895 



5.23.30 
5.33.30 
5.35.00 
5.42.00 
5.. 57. 08 
6.2.5.00 
6.51,03 
7.00.00 
7.18.00 
7.30.00 
7.32.00 
7.33.00 
8.21.00 



12.20.00 
13.10.40 
14.34..55 
14.43.00 
15.04.00 
15..57.00 
16.18.00 
18.09.00 
20.15.00 



170 miles. 
161 " . 



STANDARD COURSE. 

ONE HUNDRED MILES. 

.P Carlton Wrii;ht Colorado Sp'n?s, Col., Aug.9,'96 

. F C Fuhrmanr Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 7, 1895 

.R. P. Searle Elizabeth, N. J., Oct. 13,1894 

.C. A. Wescott Chicago, 111., Oct. 20, 1895 

. Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1897 

.A. A. Hansen Minneapolis, Minn., Apr. 16, '95 

.B. G. Goble Pittsburg, Pa., Sept. 29, 1894 

. R. E. Miller St. Louis, Mo., July 14,1895 

.C. F. Manahan Ackley, Iowa, Aug. 4, 1895 

.C. G Merrills Cleveland, O., Oct. 8, 1893 

.E. J. Whitson Grand Island, Neb., Sept. 39,'95 

.S. T. Durant Salt Lake City, Ut., Oct. 10,'95 

.F.Taylor Dallas, Tex., Mar. 23, 1895 

TWO HUNDRED MILES. 

. . A W. W. Evans N. Brunswick, N.J., Aug. 19, '95 

..T. T. Mack Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1894 

..Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1897 

..A. E.Smith Chicago, 111., Aug. 39,1896 

..W. F. Taylor Norwood, Mass., Aug. 8, 1897 

..C. G. Merrills Cleveland, O., Oct. 8, 1893 

..Mrs. A. E. Rinehart.. Denver, Col., Sept. 27, 1896 

..A. A. Hansen Minneapolis, Minn., Apr. 18, '95 

..C. E. Jenkins Omaha, Iowa., Sept. 7-8, 1895 

THREE HUNDRED MILES. 

..Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 9-10, 1897 

TWELVE HOURS. 

..Henry Smith Baltimore, Md., May 9, 1897 

. .A. E.' Smith Chicago, 111., Aug. 29, 1896 



<srALl)IN(;'s OFFICIAL BICYCLE C.UIDE. lOl 

TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

Riders. Track and Date. 

316 miles Elmer C. Davis Baltimore. Md., July 10-11, '07 

29.5 miles, 204 feet... A. E.Smith Chicago, 111., Oct. 24-2.5, 181)0 

277 " A. W. W. Evans N.Brunsw'k,N.J.,Aug.]9-20,'95 

246 " C. C. Merrills Cleveland, O., Oct. 8-9, 1893 

MISCELLANEOUS STATE TANDEM RECORDS NOT NOTED IN 
NATIONAL TAISLES. 

Colorado — 5 miles, straightaway — 11. .36 3-5,Wright-Fairley, Colorado Springs, 

Iune20, 1897. 
Missouri— .50 miles, standard— 3.10.00, Wills-Cochran, St. Louis, July 14, '9.5. 
Missouri— 100 miles, standard— 7.00.00, Wills-Cochran, St. Louis, July 14, '9.5. 

THIRTY-DAY CENTURY RECORDS. 

Pennsylvania — John H. George, Philadelphia, 39 centuries, Oct. 1-30, 1896. 
Maryland — S. M. Warns, Baltimore, 28 centuries, Aug. 2.5-Sept. 23, 1896. 
Colorado — Mrs. A. E. Rinehart, Denver, 25 centuries, Oct. 17-Nov. 15, 1896. 
Wisconsin — W. D. Harper, Jr., Milwaukee, 12 centuries, July 1897. 

SIXTY-DAY CENTURY RECORDS. 

Pennsylvania — John H. George, Philadelphia, 70 centuries, Sept. 1-Oct. 30,'96. 
Colorado — Mrs. A. E. Rinehart, Denver, 46 centuries, Sept. 27-Nov. 25, 1896. 
Maryland— S. M. Warns, Baltimore, 45 centuries, July 30-Sept. 27, 1896. 

THIRTY-DAY MILEAGE RECORDS, 

Pennsylvania— John H. George, Philadelphia, 3,900 miles, Oct. 1-30, 1896. 
Maryland— S. M. Warns, Baltimore, 3,.581 miles, Aug. 25-Sept. 23, 1896. 
Illinois— R. E. O'Connor, Chicago, 2.786 miles, July 1-30, 1896. 
Colorado— Mrs. A. E. Rinehart, Denver, 2,638 miles, Oct. 17-Nov. 15, 1896. 

SIXTY-DAY MILEAGE RECORDS. 

Pennsylvania— John H. George, Philadelphia, 7,000 miles, Sept. 1-Oct. 30, '96. 
Maryland— S. M. Warns, Baltimore, 5,837 miles, July 2-Aug. 30, 1896. 
Illinois— R. E. O'Connor, Chicago, 5,364 miles, July 2-Aug. 30, 1896. 
Colorado— Mrs. A. E. Rinehart. "Denver, 4,962% miles, Sept. 27-Nov. 25, '96. 

Y'EAR'S CLUB CENTURY RECORDS. 

Pennsylvania — Century Wheelmen, Philadelphia, 1,213 centuries, 1896. 
Illinois — Lincoln Cycling Club, Chicago, 604 centuries, 1895. 
Maryland — C. C. C. of Maryland, Baltimore, 462 centuries, 1896. 

CLUB CENTURY SURVIVOR'S RECORD. 
Century Wheelmen, Philadelphia, Pa., June 13, 1890, 191 survivors. 

CENTURY COURSE RECORDS. 

EUin-Ann.ra Century Course— .5..57.30, H. Kohl, Sept. 27, 189.5. 
Buffalo-Leroy Century Course— .5..33.20, F. C. Fuhrman, Sept. 8, 1895. 
Buffalo-Dunkirk Century Course— 6..36. 45, Edw. P. Zahni, June 26, 1897. 
Denver-Evans Century Course— 6.30.30, C. H. Anderson, June 20, 1897. 
Minneapolis-Northfiel'd Century Course— 7.03.00, A. A. Hansen, Oct. 1.5, '94. 



102 Spalding's official bicycle guide. 

Colorado Springs-Pueblo Century Course — 5.53.45, P. Carlton Wright, May 

34, 18%. 
Elgin-Aurora Century Course (tandem) — 5.57.00, F. G. Clark and John D. 

Andrews, July 18. 1897. 
Chicago-Libertyville-Waukegan Century Course — 5.04.00, C. A. Wescott, 

Aug. 9, 1896. 
Toledo-Clyde Century Course— 7.00.00, C. O. Lasley, Oct. 11, 1896. 
St. Louis-Bonhomme Century Course (tandem) — 6.50.00, Geo. S. Easton and 

Ernest Wills, Oct. 8, 1896. 
Cleveland-Geneva Century Course — 6.58.00, Frank R. Blackmore, Oct. 10,'96. 
Cleveland-Geneva Century Course (tandem) — 6.58.00, Wm. Lockwood and 

Leroy Calkins, Oct. 10, 1896. 
Chicago-Libertyville-Waukegan Century Course (tandem) — 5.43.00, Frank G. 

Clark and John D. Andrews, Aug. 29, 1897. 
Milwaukee-Watertown Century Course — 7.19.00, Geo. Schmidt, Aug., 1897. 

CITY TO QTY RECORDS. 

New York-San Francisco — 902.15.00, Norman De Vau.x, John I,a France, 

June 1-July 8. 1896. 
Chicago-San Francisco— 660.00.00, Norman DeVau.x, John La France, June 

11-July 8, 1890. 
New York-Philadelphia— 7.06.00, John M. Nobre, Nov. 24, 1896. 
New York-Philadelphia and return— 18.17.00, A. Peitscher, Nov. 1, 1896. 
New York-Albany— 21.54.0(3, R. P. Searle, Oct. 22-23, 1894. 
Chicago-New York— 137.21.00, A. E. Smith, June 28-July 4, 1896. 
Chicago-Buffalo— 59.34.00, A. E. Smith, June 28-July 1, 1896. 
Chicago-Rochester— 68.22.00, A. E. Smith, June 28-July 1, 1896. 
Chicago-Cleveland— 35.30.00, A. E. Smith, June 28-30, 1896. 
Chicago. Milwaukee— 5.00.00, A. E. Smith. Oct. 1896. 
Cleveland-New York— 75.51.00, A. E. Smith, June 30-July 4, 1896. 
Cleveland-Rochester— 30.52.00, A. E. Smith, JuneSO-July 1, 1896. 
Cleveland-Buffalo -15.00.00, A. E. Smith, July 10, 1896. 
Boston-Chicago— 348.00.00, A. C. Smith, A. L. Eianchi, Sept. 9-24, 1894. 
Boston-Detroit— 275.30.00, F. E. Develin, July 21-Aug. 1, 1894. 
Buffalo-Erie— 6.--20.00, L. H. Bannister, Sept. 28, 1893. 
Buffalo-Erie and return— 13.10.40. T. T. Mack, Oct. 19, 1894. 
Buffalo-Pittsburgh -21.15.30, C. G. Wallin, Aug. 24, 1895. 
Buffalo-Rochester-2.57.27, A. B. McDonell, Oct. 22. 1895. 
Baltimore-Philadelphia-9 30.00, S. M. Warns, Dec. 1, 1895. 
Baltimore- Washington— 3.49.00, L. C. Wahl, Oct. 18, 1893. 
Erie-Pittsburg— 13.11.30, C. G. Wallin, Aug. 24-25, 1894. 
Erie-Buffalo— 4.40.09, A. B. McDonell, Oct. 28, 1895. 
Frederick-Baltimore— 3.23.00, S. M. Warns, June 21, 1896. 
Rochester-New York— 67.41.00, A. E. Smith, July 1-4. 18t6. 
St. Louis-DeSoto— 3.05.00, A. G. Harding, Nov. 16, 1894. 
St. Louis-DeSoto and return— 7.47.00, H. Kohl, May 3, 1895. 
Syracuse-Utica— 2..59.00, A. J. Rosentreter, Aug. 9, 1895. 
Syracuse-Utica and return— 6.33.00, A. J. Rosentreter, Aug. 9, 1805. 
Utica-New York— 3.5.51.00, A. E. Smith, July 3-4, 1896. 
Si.ringfield-Boston and return— 17.28.30, F. C. Graves, Oct. 31, 1893 
Colorado Springs- Lien ver- -4.07.00, T. O. Vaux, May 8, 1896. 
Colorada Springs- Ilenver and return— 12..55.( 0, R. E. Osborne, June 28, 18116, 
Hagerstown-B.'dtimore-5.41.30, F. H. Harvey, Oct. 15, 1S93. 
Louisville-Paris and return— 18.32.00, N. G. Crawford, July 27, 1396. 
Rockford-Chicago— 6..50.00, R. P. Searle, July 19, 1894. 
Rockford-Chicago and return— 19.48.00, F. J. Ashton, July 31, 1893. 
Lexington-Covington— 6..50.10, C. E. Nadoud, May 5, 1894 
Color.'ido Springs":Pueblo-3.07.00, L. C. Wahl, May 10, 1895. 
Minneapolis-St. Cloud and eturn— ■.2..58.0(), A. A. Hansen, April IS, 1S'.:5. 
'J'erre Haute-Brazil 43 00, E. C. Pierce, Oct. 27, 1895. 



SPALDING'S OFFICIAL BICYCLE GUIDE. 103 

Rockvillc-Terra Haute— 1.31.30. E. F. Colberg, June 20, ISO". 
Rcxrkville-Terra Haute (tandem) — 1.19.30, Anton Hulmaii and anil C. A 

Forster, June 20, IHOT. 
New York-Philadelphia (tandom)— 8..50.00, R. H. Hartsch and Nonnenbacher 

Aug. 25, lHi)5. 
New York-Philadelphia and return (tandem)— in..")(i. 00, R. H. Partsch and J 

Nonnenbachcr, Aug. 25, 18SI5. 
Denver-Hrighton (tandem) — .53.00, H. O. Kennedy and J. A. McCuire 

Dec. 9, 1894. 
Denver-Plattville (tandem)— 1.45.00, H. G. Kennedy and J. A. McGuire 

Dec. 9, 1S94. 
Terra Haute-Rockville (tandem) — 1.34.00, W. I,. Krietenstein and K. P 

Hamilton, Oct. 13, 1895. 
Chicago-Milwaukee (tandem)— 7.35.00, Otto V. Mueller and J.N. Halifax 

Aug. Hi, 1896. 
San Francisco-Los Angeles- C7.35.00, E. O Kragness, June 22-24, 1897. 
Oakland-San Jose— 2.05.40, E. O. Kragness, Sept. 12, 1897. 
Portland-Boston and return— 21.35.00, F. R. Lang, Sept. 11-12, 1897. 



The Spalding Chainless 




Series 

No. n 


SPECIFICATIONS ^^t jj22 


Frame 


Standard height, 22 inches; 3-irich drop at crank 




hanger. Front tubes, 1^ inch; rear tubes, |- 




inch lower, ^ inch upper, reinforced; wheel 




base, 44| inches. 


Frotit Fork 


Arch fork crown; side forks reinforced. 


Bearings 


Tool steel cut from bar; tempered, ground and 




polished. 


Tires 


Goodrich single tube, 28 inch i|^ inch. 


Spokes 


Straight tangent, swaged; 2S front, 32 rear. 


Cranks 


6-| incli; round spring steel. 


Pedals 


Spalding combination. 


Handle Bars 


No. 7. 


Saddle 


Christy 


Gear 


72-inch. 


Weight 


As per specitications, without tires or saddle, 22 




pounds. 


Finish 


Black Enamel, 



OPTIONS.— 24-inch frame, Model 1124. Gear, 66 or 81. Handle bars, 
Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, S or 9. Finish, Black Enamel, white striped; Spalding 
Blue Enamel, white striped with red band rims. Tires, Hartford, Palmer 
or Kangaroo. 

For Prices^ ^PP^y to nearest agent or write to factory. 

THE SPALDING CHAINLESS has passed the experi- 
mental stage and we present it to the trade as an unqualified 
success, and the essence of perfection in this type of machine. 
It is handsome in design, and possesses many points of 
mechanical detail which simplify its construction, and will 
appeal strongly to the mechanical mind. 

aiTp^ia A. Q. SPALDING & BROS. ^^S^^^Z 

Factory, Chicopee Falls, Ma$5, 



.THE... 



Lady Spalding Chainless 




Series 

No. 10 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Model 
No. 1022 



Standard height, 22 inches; 3-inch drop at crank 

hanger. Front tubes, i^ inch lower, i inch 

upper; Rear tubes, ^ inch lower, |^ inch upper, 

reinforced; wheel base, 44^ inches. 

Arch fork crown; side forks reinforced. 

Tool steel cut from bar; tempered, ground and 

polished. 

Goodrich single tube; 28 inch by i^ incli. 

Straight tangent, swaged; 2S front, 32 rear. 

6^ inch; round spring steel. 

Spalding rublier. 

No. 6. 

Christy. 

66^ inch. 

As per specifications, williout tiresor saddle, 23 

pounds. 

Black Enamel. 



Front Fork 
Bearings 

Tins 

Spokes 

Cranks 

Fecials 

Handle Bars 

Saddle 

Gear 

Weight 

Finish 

OPTIONS.— 20-inch frame. Model, No. 1030. Gear, 73. Handle bars, 
Nos. 1,3,7 or S. Tires, Hartford, Palmer or Kangaroo. Finish, Black 
Knamel, white striped. Spalding Blue Enamel, white striped. 

For Pricest '^pply to nearest agent or write to factory. 

THE LADY SPALDING CHAINLESS contains the .same 
mechanical iLMturcs found in the gentlemen's model. The 
lines of the frame have been carefully studied, and, while 
exceedingly graceful, afford ample room for free and easy 
action in riding, and cons-enience in mounting and dismounting. 

!iHT.a"/eIJhia A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

Factory, Chicopee Palls, Hass. 



Chicago 
Washington 



Ighristy 

Hnatomical 



Has awakened the 
cycling public to the 
danger of cycling 
unless mounted on a 
properly construct- 
ed saddle. The 
Christy has the en- 
dorsement of thous- 
ands of physicians 
who use it themselves 
patients. Many of the 





Pelvis as it rests on the Christy. 

md prescribe it for their 
leading bicycle manufac- 
turers have adopted 
it as the exclusive 
equipment on their 
I wheels. Insist upon 
having the Christv 
on your wheel. No 
dealer will lose a sale 
on account of your 
preference. 



|l Pelvis as 1 
ff rests on th 



ordinary saddle, free. 



^ 



Send for booklet, " l^i- 
C)'cle Saddles, from a 
Physician's Standpoint," 



A. Q. SPALDING & BROS. 



NEW YORK 



CHICAGO PHILADELPHSA 



WASHINGTON 



0« Christy Saddle 



...FOR 1898... 



MEN'S MODEL 

No. I. Medium size, 
width of seat, 8} in. 

No. 3. Large size, 
width of seat, 9 in. 

No. 4. Small size, 
width of seat, 7 J in. 




Women's IModel. 

WOMEN'S 

MODELS 

No. 8. Small size, 
width of seat, 71 in. 

No. 9. Large size, 
width of seat, 9 in. 



Bottom View, showing Coil Springs. 



A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 
PHILADELPHIA WASHINGTON 



The Spalding Racer 




Scries 
No. 3 

F)aiitc 



Front Fork 
Bearings 

Tires 

Spokes 

Cranks 

Pedals 

Handle Fars 

Saddle 

Gear 

Tread 

IVeitrht 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Model 
No. 322 

Standard height, 22 inches; tuluUar construction ; 
flush joints; reinforced; front tubes, 1^ inch; 
rear tubes, |- inch D lower, J inch D upper; 
3-inch drop at crank hanger; \\lieel liase, 44|. 
inches. 

Arch fork crown; side forks reinforced. 
Tool steel cut from bar; tempered, ground, and 
polished. 

Goodrich single tube, 28 inch by i|- inch. 
Straight tangent, swaged; 28 front, 32 rear. 
6i inch, round spring steel. 
Spalding rat trap. 
No. 5. 

Brown Racing. 
74| inches — 24 x g. 
5 inches. 

As per specifications, without tires or saddle, 18 
pounds. 
Finish Spalding Blue Enamel, white striped, red band rims. 

OPTIONS.— 20-inch frame, Model No. 320; 24-inch frame, Model No. 
324. Handle bars, Nos. 1 , 2,3, 4, 8 or 9_. Sprockets, 20, 22 or 26 front ; 7, 8 
or 10 rear. Cranks, BJ^ or 7 inches. Tires, Hartford, Palmer, or Kangaroo. 
Finish, Black Enamel, mahogany rims. 

For Prices, apply to nearest agent or write to factory. 

THE SPALDING RACER is in design and appearanc>e an 
entirely new machine and largely so in construction, although 
embracing many of the mechanical features which have done so 
much to make the Spalding name pre-eminent wherever known. 
Every part of its mechanism has been improved wherever 
possible. It is without doubt the best chain bicycle we have 
ever produced, and in quality and excellence will leave nothing 
to be desired. 

New York A f. SPAI HINfi ^ RPOS Chicago 

Philadelphia ^' *-■• or/\LUIllU tX OIVUO. Washington 

Factory, C'licopee Falls, Mass. 



The Spalding Roadster 




^Kj:.9 specifications ^^1^:^22 

Frame Standard height, 22 inches; tubular construction ; 

flush joints; reinforced, front tubes, i|- incli ; 

rear tubes, |^ inch D lower; J inch D upper; 

3-inch drop at crank hanger; wheel base, 44J 

inches. 
Front Fork Arch fork crown; sicle forks reinforced. 
Bearings Tool steel cut from bar; tempered, ground and 

polished. 
Tires Spalding single tube, 28 inch by i| inch. 

Spokes Straight tangent, swaged; 28 front, 32 rear. 

Cranks 6|^ inch, round spring steel. 

Pedals Spalding combination. 

Handle Ban No. 2. 
Saddle Christy. 

Cear 74| inch— 24 x g. 

Tread 5 inches. 

Weight As per specifications, without tires or saddle, 20 

pounds. 
Finish Black Enamel, nickel trimmings. 

OPTIONS.— a4-inch frame. Model No. <m ; 26-inch frame. Model No. 920. 
Handle bars, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 or 9. Sprockets, 20 or 22 front ; 8 to 10 rear. 
I'.r.ike. 

For Prices, ^^pply to nearest agent or write to factory. 

THE SPALDING ROADSTER is specially constructed 
as our leader for the 1S9S trade. In lines, anil appearances 
generally, it will resemble THK SPALDING RACER, and all 
its parts and fittings receive the same care and attention as do 
the corresponding parts in other machines of our manufacture. 
This machine will compare favorably with any bicycle on the 
market, of any make, or at any price, and will prove a leader 
ill c\ t-rv sense of the word. 

New York A f, QDAI HINfi k BROS Chicago 

Philadelphia ^« ^« or/VUUIl^U tX. L»IVUO. Washington 

Factory, Chicopee Falls, Mass. 



The Lady Spalding 




Series 

No. 8 

FriDiie 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Model 
No. 822 



Curved double tube; standard lieight, 22 indies; 
tubular construction; front tubes, li inch lower, 

1 inch upper; rear tubes, ^ inch D lower, |- inch 
D upper. All joints reinforced; 3-inch drop at 
crank hanger. 

Arch fork crown; side forks reinforced. 
Tool steel cut from bar; tempered, ground and 
polished. 

Spalding single tube; 28 inch by i|- inch. 
Straight tangent, swaged; 28 front, 32 rear. 
6^ inch, round spring steel. 
Spalding rubber. 
No. I. 

Direct plunger, with rubber friction blocks. 
Christy. 

02 inch — 20 X 9. 

As per specifications, without tires or saddle, 22 
pounds. 
Black Enamel, mahogany rims and guards. 



Front Fork 
Bearings 

7 ires 

Spokes 

Cranks 

Pedals 

Handle Bars 

Brake 

Saddle 

Gear 

Weight 

Finish 

OPTIONS.— 20-inch frame, Model No. 820 ; 24-inch frame, Model No. 
824. Handle bars Nos. 2, 6 or 8. Sprockets, 22 front ; 8 or 10 rear. Cranks, 
6J^ inch. 

For Prices, apply to nearest agent or write to factory. 

THE LADY SPALDING is the counterpart of THE 
SPALDING ROADSTER in quality and workmanship. The 
lines of the frame have been improved in detail and appearance, 
and it represents the latest and best in everything that goes to 
make an ideal ladies' mount. It is "Spalding Quality" 
throughout, which synonym stands for the best in everything it 
represents. 



New York 
Philadelphia 



A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

Factory, Chicopee Falls, Hass. 



Chicago 
Washington 



Shepard's "Bevel Gear" Cyclometer 

(PATENTED SEPT. 24, «897.) 
Is made like a fine watch in Finish, Dirability and Accuracy. 
Only 11-16 of an Inch in Diameter. Weight, iK ounces, without 
tlie holder. Every part made from hardened brass and bronze, and 
nickel-plated, making it dust and rust proof 




Strike 
Fxact size of Shepard C-\ 



No. 2 
Has also the 
Detachable Holder. 
meter. 



Using this detachable holder the cyclometer can ne detached 
and carried in the pocket. Riders who have had their cyclo- 
meters broken off in transit on railroads will appreciate this. 

IT IS ABSOLUTELY SECURE, and the cyclometer can be 
easily taken off or put on without changing the adjustment in 
any way. 

REQUIRES NO LUBRICANT The plate over the register is 

^ selected cut glass. 1 he mside 

gear mechanism is a marvel of simplicity and accuracy — not a spring 
in the entire construction. A jiositive geared motion with every 
revolution of the bicycle wheel. 

...EVERY ONE WARRANTED... 

Records to 10,000 Miles, and Repeats. 

Tlie Cyclometer is made to go on left hand side of Bicycle — the 
mounting and dismounting side. 

No. 1. Shepard Cyclometer, with Regular Holder, Each, $1.00 
Nil. 2. Shepard Cyclometer, with Regular and De- 
tachable llnl.ler " 1.25 

Send for Complete Bicycle Sundries Catalogue. 



Chicago 



Ph.Siphia A. G. SPALDING & BROS. W"rhfnVon 



ILbe 



(Uestern €ycli$t 



413 Sheely Block, 
Omaha, Neb 



OFFICES AT ^^^ 

OMAHA 
KANSAS CITY 
CEDAR RAPIDS 



Cycling 
Authority 

of the... 

Mid=West 



...IT CIRCULATES... 

(4,500 Copies Weekly) 

thoroughly among ihe dealers of South 
Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, 
Western Missouri, and also 

...AMONG THE RIDERS... 

of this same territory. 

FOR ADVERTISING PATE CARD AND 
FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

WESTERN CYCLIST PUBLISHING CO. 

413 Sheely Block, Omaha, Neb. 



'N^N/N/^^" 



; Champion Jas. J. Corbett... 

USED T'HP — 



"CORBETT" 



(Trade Mark) 



Manufactured by 
A. J. REACH CO., 

Tulip and Palmer Sts., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Boxing Gloves : 



...In his Fight with 



MITCHELL '^' &°di!a/"' 




The REACH Trade Mark Is on the Wrist of Every Glove. 

An Exact Duplicate 

of the Gloves used by Corbett 
will be sent upon receipt of price. 

Per Set, $7.50 

If you cannot get them in your city, 
address 

A. J. Reach Co., 

^""Vt^^t?""^" PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



spalding's 
Bicycle Sundries. 




We carry a complete lin 
of Bicycle Sundries am 
shall be pleased to sent 
Catalogue on application. 

Lamps 
Bells 
Enamel 
Tire Cement 
Rubber Cement 
3 in 1 Compound 
"RR" Compound 
Illuminating Oil 
Lubricating Oil 
Repair Kits 
Cyclometers 
Bicycle Watches 
Cork Grips 
Oil Cans 



Trouser Guards 

Wrenches 

Chains 

Bundle Carriers 

Pumps 

Saddles 

Bicycle Stands 

Toe Clips 

Tool Bags 

Foot Brakes 

Whistles 

Screwdrivers 

In fact, everything which 
is of use to bicyclists. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 




New York Chicago 

Philadelphia 



SPALDING'S Athletic Goods 




ATHLETIC BATH ROBES 

The following robes are of our own importation 
and specially adapted for athletic as well as bath- 
ing purposes. Our Eiderdown robe is extremely 
soft and comfortable and strongly recommended. 

No. I. Robe. Fancy Toweling, . $4.00 

No. 6- Eiderdown, extra quality, . 5.00 



TOWELS, MITTS, ETC. 

The newest thing in l^ath Towels, etc., both soft and rough in one, one side befng 
the rough Turl;ish surface, the reverse side soft and velvety. The advantage of this 
combination is at once apparent, and, to the bather, is a positive luxury, producing, 
with little effort, the friction and glow to the flesh so necessary and so exhilarating 
after the bath. 




u 




No. O. 
No. I. 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 



Each, 
Per pair, 



Turkish Bath Towel, extra large size. 
Towels, combination, 

]\Iitts 

Flesh Strap, ........ 

Bath Slippers, ..... Per pair 

Catalogue of All Sports Mailed Free. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. ""^^^^J^^^ir^^^ 



$1.25 

.50 

.40 

.75 

I. CO 



gton 




s 



PALDINQ'S^ 
..= RUNNING SHOES 

USED BY CHAMPIONS WEFERS, 
KILPATRIGK^ AND ALL THE 
LEADING RUNNERS ^ Jt jt ^ ^ 



No. 2/0. «' The Spalding" Shoe. Finest Kangaroo 
leather ; an extremely light and glove-fitting shoe ; 
besi English steel spikes, firmly riveted on. ^, ^^ 
Per pair JhO.UU 

No. 10. Finest Calfskin Running Shoe. Light 
weight, hand-made, six spikes. Per pair, . $4.50 

No. 11. Calfskin Running Shoe. Machine-made, 

five spikes. Per pair $3.00 

Catalogue of All Sports mailed Free, 



A. Q. SPALDING & BROS. 



NEW YORK 
PHILADELPHIA 



CHICAGO 
WASHINGTON 



SPALDING'S J 

b HIGHEST.. 
QUALIT 



V BOXING GLOVES 




•ij i^ m 




S&i^i^^itJJjJi^iif i^ijriif {jJiiJ ^3 iff i^^^; iii V Wi iiHji V V a ii; ii; 5|5 

Representing tlie highest grade of material, workmanship and finish, 

and the most perfect in design our past experience 

enables us to produce. 

No. (30. Spalding's Highest Quality 8-oz. " Instructor's" Safety 
Glove, with Graham's Patent Finger Protector and Bennett's 
New Heel Pad, giving absolute protection to the sparrer under 
all conditions ; made of the finest California tanned kid, laced 
front and stuffed with best curled hair. A very large and soft 
glove. ..... Per set of four gloves, $7,50 

No. 1 OO. Spalding's Highest Quality 6-oz. "Sparring" G'ove, 
with Gkaham's Patent Safety Grip and Finger Protector; made 
of extra quality velvet tanned dogskin, stuffed with best curled 
hair and lace front. . . . Per set of four gloves, $7. 50 

No. I J 5. Spalding's Highest Quality 5-oz. "Club" Glove, with 
Graham's Patent Safety Grip, extra quality velvet tanned dog- 
skin, stuffed with best curled hair, lace front and heavily padded 
wrists; made in accordance with legal regulations governing 
public contests. . . Per set of four gloves, $7.50 

Our Complete Catalogue for all Athletic Sports and Uniforms 
Mailed Free to any Address. 




A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 



New York. 



Ciljcago. Philadelphia. 






Spalding's 
Bicycling and Outing Sweaters. 




Shaker Sweaters. 

Our Shaker Sweaters are made of 
>elected American wool and are superior 
ill quality, fit and finish to any sweaters 
i II the market at equal prices. We guar- 
;intce them to be absolutely all wool and 
full shaped to body and arms. Colors; 
White, Black, Navy Blue and Tan. 

No. 3. Staiulard weight, $3.50 

No. 5. Medium weight, 2.75 



Ribbed Sweaters. 

Made of fine Australian wool, are heavy 
ribbed and handsomely woven, full shaped 
to body and arms, and guaranteed the finest Ajkhll 
and best line of Ribbed Sweaters ever offered M tW,ll\ 
at the price. ^^'i'!*= 'kj-..." ti^.,a Bio^i- -,,,^1 /fiUuUI'fiil 
Maroon. 

No. PX. 

No. 7. 

No. 9. 



Speci 

Standard weight, 3.00 

Medium weight, 2.00 



Fancy Mixtures. 

All Wool Ribbed Sweater in fancy mix- 
tures. A new and pleasing departure from 
the prevailing solid colors. 

No. 15. Standard weight, $4.00 

Catalogue * ^T rr < «• t» T\ NEW YORK 

Application A. G. Spalding & Bros. ^|{|£^?^ 






flfbleflc Sweaters 



Our " Highest Quality '' 
Sweaters are made of the 
very finest Austrah'an 
lamb's wool and are exceed- 
ingly soft and plcr.sant to 
wear. They are full fash- 
ioned to body and arms and 
without seams of any kind. 
We call special attention to 
the "Intercollegiate" grade, 
which wereoriginally made 
by special order for the Yale foot ball eleven and are now exclusively used 
by all Intercollegiate players. They are considerably heavier than the 
heaviest sweater ever knitted and cannot be furnished by any other maker, 
as we have exclusive control of this special weight. The various grades in 
our "Highest Quality" Sweaters are identical in quality and finish, the 
difference in price being due entirely to variations in weight. Colors: 
White, Navy Blue, Black and INIaroon. 

No. A. "Intercollegiate," ''^^elght, $7.00 
No. B. Heavy weight, . 5 00 

No. C. Standard weight, . 4.50 

CoirsDlfte Catalogue of Athletic Uniforms and all other requisites for Indoor 
and Outdoor Sports mailed free to any address. 



A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 



New York Chicago Philadelphia 



w 



Washington /i-i-^ 






^ 



Spalding's Bicycle Shoes 



^^^^^^^^^^; 



'* Clipper" 
Bicycle 
Shoe 




High Cut. 

No. 4B. Spalding's "Clipper" Bicycle Shoe, High Cut, 
selected calf, black, substantially made, and a very 
serviceable shoe, ...... $3.00 

No. 4T. Same as our 4B, Russet, . . . 3.00 

No. 3B. Spalding's "Clipper" Bicycle Shoe, Loiv Cut, 
selected calf, black, substantially made, and a most 
excellent shoe for general wear, . . . $2.75 

No. ST. Same as our 3B, Russet, . 2.75 



Racing Shoe 




No. 2B. Spalding's "Racing" Shoe, extremely light and 
glove-fitting; each pair furnished with cleats, which can 
be readily attached after the position of the tread has 
been determined. Worn almost exclusively by all profes- 
sionals $3.50 

Catalogue of Bicycle Sundries free to any address. 

A.G.SPALDING & BROS. ^^^^ ^°i^M,ade,phfa'"^^"" 



Cbe 

IHctropolitan IHagdzine 

has the circulation, and it is 
of the rig^ht kind. It invites 
the attention of discrimin= 
ating advertisers. . . . 

If your ad is not in the METROPOLITAN, look over the 
current issues and you will realize why the magazine is a medium 
that you could not neglect — the review^ers call it " the most read- 
able and progressive of all the monthlies." 

Possibly you have not kept track of its rapid strides in circu- 
lation and in the estimation of the public- 

We shall be pleased, upon application, to send you or any other 
reputable advertiser, the Metropolitan to bear out our statements, 

METROPOLITAN MAGAZINE, 
J40 WEST 42d STREET, NEW YORK. 



?^^^^^%>%?^5k.'«:::i.^^''5:i.'5::i.^.^^."^.^^*'=^'^:::^-^?^=:i*^5i-* 



FOR ALL 
CYCLE NEWS 

READ THE 

new Vork Press 



THE LEADING 
BICYCLE PAPER OF 
GREATER NEW YORK 




4 ^ 

the Han$oo ^^Jj^ 

A 

^A^ Cylinder shape and occupies no more room 
^O^ than the ordinary tool bag. The compartments 
adapt themselves to the size and shape of the 
tools, which fit snugly and avoid all rattling. 
One revolution of the cylinder exposes the entire 
contents. Made in russet and black leather. 

Price, $K25 
GEO. BARNARD & CO. 

BROOKLYN CHICAGO 

A WISE ADVERTISER AND HIS | 

MONEY ARE SOON PARTED.^ § 

After a trial of ^ 

The American Cyclist 1 

Published Weekly at HARTFORD, CONN. ^i 

" TJw 7'al;ie of an ad. is in its results." .^ 



i^ 






' Cbe Great ^^' 
»me$tern medium « 

ALL THE DEALERS TAKE IT. 
J* 

Man(ifacti;rkrs— Use it and be in 
touch with the Western trade .... 

READF.R^Read it and be strictly 
up-to-date on all cycling topics.... ^x^ 

Cbe Cycling me$'t 

Circulates through the entire West, 
on the Pacific Coast, and in the 
foreign ports on the Pacific 

$1.00 PER ANNUn ^n.. 

-^'- THE 

Cycling iUc$t Publishing Co. 

DENVER, COL. 

W 

1^ BRANCH, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. /)>;. 



Wright &Ditson 



AGENTS 
FOR 




0^## 



LARGEST BICYCLE, TEN- 
NIS .•* AND ^ ATHLETIC 
GOODS DEALERS IN NEW 
ENGLAND. J- SEND FOR 
CATALOGUE.^j*^^e5t^.^ 



Wright & Ditson 

344 Washington Street 
Boston, Mass. 



"t!^^::se^^^ t^^sse^^^ t^^^:^^^^ 



THE 

SPALDING 

OFFICIAL 

LEAGUE 

BALL 



Is the 

Officially 

Adopted 

Ball 

of all the 

Leadingf 

Leagues and 

Associations 




"SPALDING" 

When Stamped on Athletic Goods or Bicycles 



means 



SUPERIORITY 



A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 
^ Chicago New York Philadelphia Washington 



(l^^S^===^^k '^^^2*=^^ tf^^tJS^^^^J' 



! SPALDING'S INDIAN CLUBS. • 

^ Our Trade Mark Indian Clubs are of selected material ^ 

and perfect in shape. They are finely polished, with 
^ ebonite centre band and gilt stripe top and bottom. * 
^ Each pair wrapped in paper bag. * 

TRADE HARK CLUBS. * 

Weight. Per Pair. ^ 

• 1=2 pound, . $ .40 ^ 

3=4 " . .45 « 

1 " . .50 « 

1 1*2 *< . .60 « 

2 ** , .70 « 
2 1=2 « , .75 « 

3 ^' . .80 « 

4 " . 1.00 « 

5 " . 1.25 « 

WOOD DUHB BELLS. * 

Our Trade Mark Bells are made of selected material, ^ 
neatly decorated, well finished and of perfect balance. ^ 

Weight. Per Pair. ^ 

1-4 pound, , $ .35 

1=2 " • .35 

3=4 " . .45 

1 " . .50 I 

1 1-2 *' . .60 ^ 

2 " . .65 : 

3 " . .85 ^ 

4 ** . 1.00 ^ 








Our complete Catalogue for all Athletic Spo ts, Uniforms and Gym- 
nasium Goods mailed free to any address. 

A. G. 5PALDINQ & BROS., 

NEW YORK. CHICAQO. PHILADELPHIA. 



Spalding's** 
Borne Cibrary** 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

Devoted to Games and Pastimes 
of interest to the Home Circle.^ 



I. 


Chess 




13. Loto 


4 


2. 


Whist 




14. Hearts 


«| 


3. 


Dominoes and Dice 


15. Reversi 


J 


4. 


Poker 




16. Piquet 


1 


5. 


Backgammon 


17. GoBang 


6. 


Euchre 




18. Games of Patience 


m 


7. 


Billiards 




19. Children's Games 


s 


8. 


Ecarte 




20. Cribbage 


J 


9. 


Checkers 




21. Drawing Room Games 


1/ 


10. 


Bezique 




22. Group of Card Games 


i 


11. 


Pool 




23. Children's Games 


n 


12. 


Pinochle 




24. Group of Card Games 


i 






25. Drawing Room Games 


1 






PRICE 10 CENTS 


i 



American Sports Publisbing Co. 
241 Broaaway, Hew Vork 






SPALDING'S 

Athletic Library 

No. Published Monthly 

2. Indian Clubs and Dumb Eells. 

4. How to Become a Boxer. 

b. Gymnastics. ^ [Campbell. 

G. How to Play Lawn Tennis. By Champion i 

7. How to Play Base Ball. Just the thing for( 
Boys. By Walter Camp. 

9. The Athlete's Guide. How to Run, Sprint, ( 
Jump, Walk, and Throw Weights. 

]'?. Association Foot Ball. 

18. Hand Ball. 

!4. Curling, Hockey and Polo. 

10. Skating. A very practical book. By Champion < 

]S. Fencing. [Geo. D. Phillip.s 

20. Cricket Guide. By Geo. Wright. 

21. Rowing. By E. J. Giannini, Champion Amateur ( 
2 i. Canoeing. By C. Bower Vaux. [Oarsman. 
25. Swimming. By Walter G. Douglas. 

20. How to Play Foot Ball. By Walter Camp. 

27. College Athletics. By M. C. Murphy. [son. 

29. Exercising with Pulley Weights. H. S. Ander- 

30. How to Play Lacrosse. By W. H. Corbett. 
32. Practical Ball Playing. By Arthur A, Irwin. 
3i'. All Around Athletics 

31) Lawn Bowls. By Henry Chadwick. 

40. Archery. By James S. Mitchel. 

42. How to Use the Punching Bag. 

.5."-. Bportinsr Rules ; for discus throwing, etc. 

57. Official Roller Polo Guide for 1896-7'. 

.58. Bowling. Latest rules and regulations. 

(10. Indoor Base Ball. 

61. Athletic Almanac for 1897. 

62. Military Cycling in the Rocky Mountains. By' 

Lieut. James A. Moss, U. S. A. 

63. Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide. 

04. Spalding's Lawn Tennis Annual. 

05. Intercollegiate A. A. A. A. Guide. 

06. Technical Terms of Base Ball. 

07. Rowing Guide. 
(>S. Official Croquet Guide. 

69. Official A. A. U. Rules. [Walter Camp.' 

70. Official Foot Ball Guide for 1897. Kdited by i 

71. Official Golf Guide. 

72. Physical Training Simplified. No Apparatus. 

73. Official Basket Ball Guide for 1897-8. 

74. Official Bicycle Guide. Instructions to cyclists; 

Portraits of all leading riders ; complete list of i 
records. 

Per Copy, 10 cents, postpaid. 

American Sports Publishing Co.,< 

241 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



Spalding's 



^ ^ ^ 



ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE OF 



FALL AND 
WINTER.... 



$m% 



¥¥ 



FOOT BALL, ICE SKATES, GOLF AND 
POLO Jt ATHLETIC AND GYMNASIUfl 
OUTFITS Jt, SWEATERS, HUNTING 
CLOTHING AND* EQUIPMENTS, AND 
ALL ACCESSORIES FOR FALL AND 
WINTER WEAR. Jt ^ J^ Jk Jt Jt 

¥¥ 

Handsomely illustrated, and the recognized authority for standard and 
up-to-date goods. Mailed free to any address. 

¥¥ 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 
PHILADELPHIA WASHINGTON 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

nil III lllllnll! .""■■IIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 




E)(.CELLED 



A. a SPALDING & BROS. 



PHILADELPHIA 
)216 Chestnut SU 



CHICAGO 
J47 and 149 Wabash Ave. 

WASHINGTON 
(0t3 Pennsylvania Ave* 



NEW YORK 
}26-)30 Nassau St.